Canada is an economically independent country
The history of Canada
With almost ten million square kilometers, Canada is the second largest country in the world. Its fascinating landscapes, Canada's eventful history and life in a multicultural society have earned Canada a worldwide reputation.
The history of populated Canada began before about 30,000 years agowhen Siberian nomads came to North America over the land bridge that still existed at the time. The next historical phase was marked by the expeditions of the Europeans in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The French and especially the British, who have accompanied the history of Canada and its development to this day, dominated the colonization of Canada.
Canada is a member of Commonwealth of Nations, the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II is the nominal head of the country as Queen of Canada.
Today's Canada consists of the ten provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario (with the capital Ottawa), Prince Edward Island, Québec and Saskatchewan as well as the three territories Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon.
The indigenous people of Canada, First Nations, Inuits - and the Métis
Siberian nomads crossed today's one about 30,000 years ago Bering Sea. With them began the early settlement and thus the history of populated Canada. In the centuries that followed, their descendants migrated further and further south.
These nomads are considered to be the ancestors of the "First Nations”North America. The history of Canada shows that these peoples were able to adapt to different living conditions, for example the Inuit ("people") in northern Nunavut and the Iroquois further south.
Fishing, hunting and agriculture were dominant. Before the colonization by the Europeans, several thousand Eskimos ("those who eat raw meat"), the people now called Inuit and around 200,000 Indians with around 50 different tribal cultures inhabited the country.
They helped the settlers to find their way around the large, wild country. In the course of Canada's history it became apparent that the settlers built an economically successful nation with their help, but that the First Nation mostly only suffered disadvantages from being settled by the Europeans.
The Mestizos (Métis) are the descendants of indigenous people and French-speaking settlers. Since the 1980s, the indigenous people have been fighting hard to win back constitutional and land rights, as well as mining rights for natural resources.
The east coast of Canada - a destination for early seafarers and explorers
The Vikings landed under the leadership of Leif Eriksson about 1000 years after Christ on the coast of Newfoundland, eastern Canada near Europe. In spite of the plentiful fishing grounds, the Vikings were not interested because, among other things, the winters were far too cold for them.
It was an episode of little impact in Canadian history. It was different when in 1497 the Italian navigator Giovanni Caboto (English John Cabot), commissioned by the English crown, set foot on Newfoundland. Since seafarers before him thought they had reached India, they had the indigenous people of Canada "Indians" called.
John Cabot managed to attract European fishermen with his descriptions of the lush fishing grounds. In 1603 the French entered Samuel de Champlain, who is considered the father of "New France", the country.
Formative for the History of Canada in the 18th century the hostilities between the English and the French were carried over from the "Old World" to the "New World". in the Year 1763 However, France ceded its Canadian ownership claims to Great Britain.
The phase between 1760 and 1867 was the time of "British North America" and the founding time of Canada as well as setting the course for the further history of Canada.
At the time, Canadians lived in fear of being taken over by the USA, which was probably due to their ability to merge, the founding of the "Dominion of Canada“, Favored.
The Dominion of Canada
With the British North America Act in 1867, the Dominion of Canada set. On July 1, 1867, the Dominion initially included the present-day provinces of Ontario, Québec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
July 1st has been an official public holiday, Dominion Day, since 1879. To this day it is reminiscent of the formation of Canada as a state of the Commonwealth. The name of the holiday was changed in 1982 with reference to the Canada Act, which came into force in the same year Canada Day renamed.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Dominion referred to the self-governing colonies and Ireland within the former British Empire. The word was taken from a psalm in the King James Bible.
The psalm section reads: “He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth” (“He shall rule from sea to sea, from the river to the ends of the earth”). The word Dominion was intended to document Canada's ties to the monarchical form of government in Great Britain. To this day, the motto is derived from Psalm 72: 8: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (From sea to sea).
Canada Day is celebrated all over Canada today, there are many celebrations, concerts, festivals as well as air and marine shows and fireworks. The largest celebration takes place with the Prime Minister of Canada and the Governor General of Canada on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.
To this day, the Dominions and the mother country Great Britain form the British Commonwealth of Nations. However, since the 1970s, a new usage of language has documented the nature of the Commonwealth which has changed in the meantime.
The British Queen is no longer head of state in Canada, Australia or New Zealand, but the Queen of Canada, Australia or New Zealand.
The Westminster Statute and other milestones
The year 1931 was a major milestone in the history of Canada.Statute of Westminster“De facto an independent state in the Commonwealth and received its legislative independence. The Westminster Statute did not apply to Newfoundland, which did not join Canada until 1949.
During both world wars, Canada played a role with the support of the Allies, which promoted its recognition as an autonomous state. In particular the battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917 promoted the cohesion of Canada as a united nation.
Another step took place in 1969 when the "Official Languages Act" made the two equal National languages English and French codified. The dominant ethnic groups in Canada are the Anglo and French Canadians (a third of the population in Quebec and New Brunswick).
In the course of Canada's history, regional and linguistic differences make national identity more difficult, but this is weakened by Canada's great liberalism. Since the decisive event in the History of Canada, the change from the status of Dominion to a recognized state, Canada is increasingly emancipating itself from Great Britain.
The fascinating country with its extension from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean has been developing since the First World War towards further independence and the formation of more influence in the world.
The Canada Act of 1982 (German Canada Act) dissolved all constitutional ties between Canada and the United Kingdom when it came into force after it was passed in the British Parliament. Up to this point it was de facto possible for the British Parliament to amend the constitutional law, i.e. the Canadian constitution.
The Canada Act came into force in Great Britain on March 29, 1982 and on April 17, after being signed by Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, in Ottawa, also in Canada.
Tobias Barth is the founder of Faszination-Kanada.com, the largest German-speaking online platform on Canada. Since 1997, the born globetrotter has traveled to Canada many times, explored almost all the beautiful corners of the dreamland and emigrated to the far north, to the Yukon, in 2016. Tobias is also active as a tour guide, professional photographer and videographer and entrepreneur and has been running the EPIC NORTH Tour Experiences travel company since 2019, which offers small group tours in the Yukon, Alaska and the Northwest Territories.
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