At which point are roofs built inclined
This roof shape is inclined on two sides and has a ridge and two eaves. On the narrow sides, the roof surfaces form a gable. Saddle roofs represent the most original roof shape for residential buildings. The construction can be designed as a purlin roof truss with ridge, foot and central purlins. Rafter or collar beam roofs are also suitable for smaller spans. The shape of the gable roof enables numerous different roof pitches and eaves heights. Due to its simple construction principle, which allows rainwater to drain off in a relatively simple way, it is one of the most frequently built roofs in temperate climates.
The pent roof is characterized by a one-sided roof pitch with only one eaves and one ridge. This creates a high and a low side of the building. In old buildings, monopitch roofs are mainly found on bay windows or low extensions, and in churches also on side aisles. In new buildings, the demand for the one-sided sloping roof shape increased, especially for energy-saving residential buildings. The roof is often opened to the south in order to achieve passive solar gains. The construction is inexpensive and easy to manufacture.
Trench roofs, also called butterfly roofs, are predominantly anchored regionally in southern Germany and are mostly found in multi-storey terraced houses. Basically, they represent the reverse of a gable roof: By joining two pent roofs, a lower central axis is created, the so-called ditch. In this, for example, the gutter for draining off rainwater is integrated. Rooms under the roof can either be spanned freely or the valley rests on an inner wall. The ditch roof is not always visible, as its shape is often hidden behind a brick parapet, the so-called blind gable. In this case it can be seen through the gutter, which is led through the outer facade to a downpipe in the middle of the house.
The mansard roof, named after the French builder Francois Mansart, consists of several roof surfaces with different angles of inclination. The lower surfaces are steeply inclined, the upper surfaces are somewhat flatter. The base is formed by the main horizontal beam of the attic ceiling. The ridge height can be determined using a semicircle constructed from here, the division of which can also be used to determine the two differently inclined surfaces. In addition, a mansard roof requires a base beam for the flatter sloping upper roof. Due to this somewhat complicated and expensive construction, the wood consumption is greater than with other roof constructions. Mansard roofs are mainly found in France and Germany and were first used in the Baroque era. Towards the end of the 19th century they were often used in residential construction because they allow the greatest possible use of the roof space.
With a hipped roof, not just two, but four roof surfaces are inclined. They are called a hip. A complete hip replaces the gable, which means that the roof has slopes on all four sides. Due to the inclination of the four surfaces, the ridge is shorter than with pitched roofs. Usually a hipped roof construction is built using a purlin roof truss. In the course of time, the hips on the narrow sides of the house were further shortened so that more vertical gable surfaces were created. This variant is called a crooked hip roof.
Pyramid, cone and tent roof
A pyramid roof consists of four equally inclined, triangular roof surfaces that meet at the top, such as a tower. There is no ridge in these three roof structures, but there is a surrounding eaves. The conical roof is used on a round building shape, the pyramid roof on square floor plans. If the building is rectangular, the roof shape is referred to as the tent roof.
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Collar beam roof construction
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