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Second Turkish siege (1683)

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Second Turkish siege, also Second Ottoman siege (1683).

View of Vienna during the second Turkish siege in 1683
Ottoman plan drawing for the siege of Vienna in 1683, after 1683

prehistory

The peace between Leopold I and the Ottomans, concluded on August 15, 1664, was valid for 20 years. In 1682 it became clear that the Ottomans would refuse an extension (on August 6, 1682 the Ottoman Empire decided the war), which is why the emperor concluded alliances with Bavaria (January 26, 1683), Poland (March 31, 1683) and Saxony; a contingent of the Holy Roman Empire was also guaranteed; Pope Innocent XI. sent money.

Grand Vizier Kara Mustapha was entrusted with the leadership of the Ottoman army. He received support from the Hungarian opposition under Imre Thököly.

At the end of March 1683 the army (200,000 men, of which 80,000 were in the train) from Edirne (Adrianople) reached Belgrade on May 3, Esseg (Ossijek) on May 19, Stuhlweissenburg (Szekesfehervár) on June 20 and on July 1st Raab (Györ). The imperial army, which was under the command of Charles V from April 4, 1683 and comprised around 30,000 men), gathered in Kittsee on May 6, but withdrew from the overwhelming Ottoman forces via Neuhäusel (June 9), Raab (1 June) July) and Petronell (July 7th; battle) back west.

course

On July 7th, the imperial court fled Vienna. On July 9, Leopold I set up a college of deputies as the highest authority in Vienna (board member K. Kaplirz, members Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg as military commander, Private Mollard as Lower Austrian Land Marshal, Hermann von Hüttendorf as Lower Austrian Government Chancellor and Court Chamber Councilor Belchamps). by July 13 the imperial garrison of 11,000 men advanced into Vienna (which Lorraine had surrendered); it supported the 5,000 men who were made up of members of the Viennese vigilante group and volunteers.

On July 13th, when the Ottomans reached Schwechat, Starhemberg gave the order to burn down the suburbs. On July 14th, the Ottomans enclosed Vienna; the Vienna powder magazine is endangered by a fire in the Schottenstift. Kara Mustapha set up his tent on the Schmelz. The bombardment of Vienna began on July 15, on July 16 the imperial troops evacuated the Danube Island, demolished the Danube bridge and retreated to the left bank of the river (advance to Pressburg July 25-29, camp until mid-August in Stillfried / March). Starhemberg was wounded. On July 17th, the Ottomans began the siege of the upper city of Klosterneuburg (which was unsuccessfully canceled on September 8th). On July 19, the crew failed, and on July 29, the Ottomans reached the "Kontreeskarpe" (outer edge of the city ditch) with their trenches and began the mine war. The main target was the section between Burgbastei and Löwelbastei. On July 23rd and 25th there were mine explosions and assault attacks by the Ottomans, on July 31st the guns had to be removed from the Löwelbastei. After another assault on August 3, the Ottomans were able to establish themselves in the trench on August 12 (second major mine detonation).

On the 1st / 2nd The Ottomans conquered the Burgravelin on September 4th, the castle bastion was destroyed by a mine on September 4th, and on September 5th and 6th they carried out assault attacks on the Löwelbastei; Raids on the houses to recruit those fit for military service. After another mine explosion on 10/11. On September 25th, Starhemberg had the streets next to the Löwelbastei barricaded.

Relief

On August 24th, Charles of Lorraine, moving westward from the Marchfeld, defeated Thököly's troops at Bisamberg. The Bavarians reached Krems on August 16, the Poles (under King Jan III Sobieski) on August 31, Hollabrunn, and the Saxons on September 1, Maissau; The assembly point for all relief troops (65,000 men) was the Tulln field. On September 4th, the battle plan was drawn up at a council of war in Stetteldorf, on September 9th the troops marched out of the Tullner Feld and on September 11th occupied the (unsecured) Wienerwald heights (fire signals for the Viennese). The relief army advanced with its left wing consisting of imperial troops via Klosterneuburg on the Danube to Nussdorf, the center consisting of Bavaria, Saxony and imperial peoples rose from Klosterneuburg from the Kahlengebirge, the Poles on the right wing the Tulbinger Kogel. On September 12th (after the mass celebrated by Marco d'Aviano) the battle of the Kahlenberg took place (semicircular front from Nussdorf to Neuwaldegg, concentric advance on Vienna), which ended with the retreat of the Ottomans towards Hungary.

Victim

If one takes the number of deaths in the months July-September of 1682 as a standard, the excess deaths in the comparison months during the second siege was only around 1,000.[1] In addition, however, a relatively large number of soldier deaths not recorded in the death inspection protocols must be added, because of the approximately 16,000 fighters, 5,000 of them residents[2], an estimated 5,000 did not survive the 1683 siege.[3]

In the summer of 1683 an epidemic of dysentery broke out in besieged Vienna, although there were no serious supply problems during the entire siege.[4] She also claimed prominent victims (9th to 19th August illness of Starhembergs, representation by Kaplirz; 9th September death of Mayor Liebenberg, provisional successor Oberkämmerer Daniel Fockhy [lieutenant colonel of the vigilante group, as chief chamberlain with Jakob Daniel Tepser supervised the distribution of the provisions and managed the Fire fighting work]). A typhoid epidemic following the siege also fell victim to numerous residents in autumn 1683.[5]

Aftermath

With the victory on September 12th, the liberation of Hungary from Ottoman rule was initiated (Peace of Karlowitz 1699). In Vienna, the disappearance of the Ottoman threat led to enormous building activity, especially in the suburbs (baroque). The damage caused directly by the fighting in the city was estimated by the city in a "Beyleuffigen rollover" at 33,370 guilders.[6] The decisive initiatives to consolidate a culture of remembrance were taken by the court in the first century after the event: the minting of commemorative coins, "Turkish prints", annual thanksgiving processions. Turkish heads were mounted on many bourgeois houses. Hostile Turkish balls were also used symbolically in the masonry. Also in songs, legends, images of grace, statues and games in which the opponent was mostly mocked, were among the popular Turkish motifs.[7] However, it was not until the scientific study of the subject in the late 19th century that it had a deeper impact, which extends to the present day. Now, through exhibitions, publications, but also through the erection of monuments, public punctuation that appealed to the general public was initiated, which was subsequently given a strong religious-ideological orientation and instrumentalization, especially during the Dolfuss-Schusschnigg regime. But even in 1983, on the occasion of a large exhibition in the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna, the debate about a possible papal mass on the day of the relief battle on Kahlenberg, which was not included in the papal visit program, pointed to the fact that the topic was still explosive.[8] The fact that the event is firmly anchored in the culture of remembrance is also reflected in the subject lessons of the third and fourth grades. A national and local history perspective still dominates, which is tempered by peace education approaches and a stronger historical contextualization.[9]

In addition to the references in the text, among other things: Nikolaus Hocke, Leopold Kollonitsch, Leopoldsberg, Daniel Suttinger, Monument to the Liberation of the Turks, Turkish Wars, Turks Ride Courtyard, Turkish sagas, Turkish lair, trenches after the Second Turkish Siege (1700);

literature

  • Thomas Barker: double-headed eagle and crescent moon. Decision year 1683, Graz-Vienna-Cologne: Böhlau 1982.
  • Walter Leitsch: Distress and illness in Vienna after the Turkish siege in 1683. In: Isabella Ackerl - Walter Hummelberger - Hans Mommsen (eds.), Politics and society in the old new Austria. Vol. 1, Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politk, Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag 1981, pp. 29-44.
  • Ferdinand Opll: The Turkish sieges of Vienna and the collective memory of the city. In: Yearbook of the Association for the History of the City of Vienna 64/65 (2008/09), pp. 171-197.
  • Andreas Weigl: Early modern population growth. In: Peter Csendes - Ferdinand Opll (Ed.): Vienna. History of a city. Vol. 2: The early modern residence (16th to 18th centuries), ed. v. Karl Vocelka - Anita Traninger, Vienna-Cologne-Weimar: Böhlau Verlag 2003, 109-131.
  • Johanna Witzling: “Siege of the Turks” at school? To convey historical images from 1683 in compulsory schooling in Vienna. In: Johann Heiss - Johannes Feichtinger (ed.): The remembered enemy. Critical studies on the "Turkish siege". Vol. 2. Critique & Utopia 9, Vienna: mandelbaum 2013, pp. 185-210.
  • Andrew Wheatcroft: The Enemy at the Gate. Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe, London: Pimlico 2009.
  • Albert Camesina: Vienna's distress in 1683: In: Reports and communications of the Altertums-Verein zu Wien 1 (1856) 8, p. 1 ff.
  • Johann Newald: Contributions to the history of the siege of Vienna by the Turks in 1683. Vienna: Kubasta & Voigt 1883
  • Victor von Renner: Vienna in 1683. History of the second siege of the city by the Turks as part of the events of the time. Vienna: Waldheim 1883
  • Reinhold Lorenz: Year of the Turks 1683 - The empire fighting for the eastern region. Vienna: Braumüller 31943
  • Walter Sturminger: Bibliography and iconography of the Turkish sieges of Vienna in 1529 and 1683. In: Publication Commission for modern history of Austria. Graz-Cologne 1955, p. 41
  • Walter Sturminger [ed.]: The Turks before Vienna in eyewitness reports. Munich: dtv 1983
  • Robert Waissenberger [Hg]: The Turks before Vienna - Europe and the decision on the Danube in 1683. Salzburg: Residence 1982
  • Robert Waissenberger [Hg]: The Turks before Vienna. Europe and the decision on the Danube in 1683. Vienna: self-published 1983 (catalog for the special exhibition of the Historical Museum of the City of Vienna, 82)
  • Günther Düriegl: Vienna 1683 - The second Turkish siege. Vienna: Böhlau / Jugend & Volk 1983
  • Peter Broucek / Walter Leitsch / Karl Vocelka / Jan Wimmer / Zbigniew Wojcik: The Victory near Vienna 1683. Warsaw: Wydasnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne 1983
  • Peter Csendes [ed.]: Studies on the history of Vienna in the Turkish year 1683. Yearbook of the Association for the History of the City of Vienna 39 (1983).
  • Peter Csendes [ed.]: Memories of Vienna's Turkish years. Vienna: Youth & People 1983 (Viennese district culture guide, 29)
  • Gertrud Gerhartl, Siege and Relief of Vienna 1683, in: Militärhistorische Schriftenreihe 46 (1983)
  • Peter Broucek / Erich Hillbrand / Fritz Vesely: Historical atlas on the second Turkish siege. Vienna: Deuticke 1983
  • Richard F. Kreutel: Kara Mustafa before Vienna. The Turkish diary of the siege of Vienna in 1683, written by the master of ceremonies of the High Gate, Graz: Styria 1977 (Ottoman historians, 1)

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Andreas Weigl: Early modern population growth. In: In: Peter Csendes - Ferdinand Opll (ed.), Vienna. History of a city. Vol. 2: The early modern residence (16th to 18th centuries), ed. v. Karl Vocelka - Anita Traninger, Vienna-Cologne-Weimar: Böhlau Verlag 2003, p. 111
  2. ^ Gertrud Gerhartl: Siege and relief of Vienna 1683. Military historical series 46, 3rd edition Vienna: Heeresgeschichtliche Museum 1985, p. 9
  3. ↑ Thomas Barker: Double-headed eagle and half moon. Decision year 1683, Graz-Vienna-Cologne: Böhlau 1982, pp. 245, 319
  4. ↑ Barker: Doppeladler, pp. 257f.
  5. ^ Andreas Weigl: Early modern population growth. In: Peter Csendes - Ferdinand Opll (ed.), Vienna. History of a city. Vol. 2: The early modern residence (16th to 18th centuries), ed. v. Karl Vocelka - Anita Traninger, Vienna-Cologne-Weimar: Böhlau Verlag 2003, p. 112; Walter Leitsch: Distress and illness in Vienna after the Turkish siege in 1683. In: Isabella Ackerl - Walter Hummelberger - Hans Mommsen (eds.), Politics and society in the old new Austria. Vol. 1, Vienna: Verlag für Geschichte und Politk, Munich: Oldenbourg Verlag 1981, pp. 29-44.
  6. ^ WStLA, main archive files, A1: 13/1683
  7. ^ Reingard Witzmann: Turk's head and Turk's ball. Some Turkish motifs and images of folk culture from the 17th and 18th centuries. In: Robert Waissenberger [Hg]: The Turks before Vienna - Europe and the decision on the Danube in 1683. Salzburg: Residenz 1982, pp. 291-303.
  8. ^ Ferdinand Opll: The siege of the Turks in Vienna and the collective memory of the city. In: Yearbook of the Association for the History of the City of Vienna 64/65 (2008/09), pp. 171-197
  9. ↑ Johanna Witzling: “Siege of the Turks” at school? To convey historical images from 1683 in compulsory schooling in Vienna. In: Johann Heiss - Johannes Feichtinger (ed.): The remembered enemy. Critical studies on the "Turkish siege". Vol. 2. Critique & Utopia 9, Vienna: mandelbaum 2013, p. 206.