Will togas ever be fashionable again?

Fashion and its folly in general

Origin, spread and tyranny of fashion - the savages and the civilized world - disfigurement of the body - immorality, inappropriateness and unsightly costumes - the art of dressing - the beauty of ancient garments - influence of Christianity, feudalism, the crusades, hierarchy, etc. on the medieval world of fashion - Fashion as an illustration of the age, the behavior of individuals - their relationship; on art, literature and politics - your royalist and conservative outlook

Fashion in the broader sense includes everything that is custom and habit at a certain time and place, both in behavior and in action, as well as in the way of living, of dressing, of living at all. In the narrower sense, the word fashion denotes the rule, which is dependent on a certain time, for the prevailing decency in all relationships of external life. In the narrowest sense of the word, we use fashion simply for clothing fashion, and in the following we will only speak of it. It means so much to us here as the determination of clothing through reflection. Hidden behind this reflection is, so to speak, an instinct, an unconscious law, which forces man to invent and wear a dress which, on the whole, characterizes the spiritual and moral state of the time; every costume has its type, which prevails throughout an epoch. But within this longer prevailing type there is a senseless tickling of change; on a small scale, all the individual forms are constantly changing in short intervals. The intention, and reflection, does not rest, but always wants to show anew that she is the creator of her work, and gives up what she considered very appropriate today for a cricket tomorrow.

The light linen with which the Hindu still covers themselves today, the reindeer skin from which the Laplander still prepares his clothing in the same form as it was a hundred years ago, the skin of the buffalo, tiger or bear, which the Indian uses as a coat and blanket - The concept of fashion, the character of which is change, cannot be applied to any of these things because of the stability of their use. It is therefore difficult to justify speaking of fashion among the ancient civilized peoples. Their mode of dressing changed little during their time of world historical importance; It was only when the Roman world domination began to decline in the later imperial period that there was a certain change in fashions, as the customs of the conquered peoples were imitated. Since that time the clothing of the civilized peoples has remained more or less subject to the change of fashion; often a people preferred to set the tone. Today the civilized world receives fashion from France, France receives it from Paris and Paris receives it from one of its districts, the Chaussée d’Antin; but if one goes there to eavesdrop on fashion at its source, one sees - nothing at all, at most a few easy-going ladies, a few blasé idlers, a few tailors and cleaning women, who form the court that decides on the appearance of all civilized humanity day by day draws up and disseminates those airy, futile laws that are not enacted as soon as they are absolutely obeyed. Paris is the undisputed and undisputed seat of fashion. France might have something to fear from the jealous competition of other countries for its supremacy if in the long run it developed into a republic; for fashion is thoroughly royalist and demands the court as the central point from which it can flow most successfully. What the ruler of France likes to wear, no matter how bizarre and ugly, is decisive for the more beautiful half of the human race. As long as Paris was a royal city, and as long as it is an imperial city, even free republican America does not disdain to slavishly let every fashion come freshly baked from Paris.

This rule of France dates mainly from the 17th century when the world gradually freed itself from the tyranny of the Spanish costume which had been introduced by Spain since the election of Charles I as German emperor. During the Thirty Years' War, as it was called at the time, one had to go dressed in alamodic fashion if one did not want to be mocked as Old Frenkish; but only the French taste was alamodic, which afterwards, as we shall see, celebrated the most brilliant triumphs under Louis XIV and Madame Pompadour. The court of Versailles was the proteus of fashion until the revolution, and since then fashion has become a monster that devoured its own children before one could really see what would become of them. With the frivolous rule of women in France, fashion became a woman's work and itself frivolous. And what about the 19th century? Even today our ladies do not stop letting themselves be dominated by the craziest ideas of French milliners. We are proud of the wars of freedom that redeemed us from French rule; but we are not always ashamed to watch our ladies remain in the slavery of French fashion, which is often tempted not only to embarrass us financially, but also to humiliate us morally. In Germany we have respected fashion newspapers that should make it their first duty to avoid anything foreign, to assert solid German taste and to wage an honest war of freedom against France. It is a well-known fact that many of the latest fashions that we notice on petticoats, trimmings, absurd hats, etc., come only from the most notorious celebrites, from the heroines of the Parisian demi-world, but nevertheless depicted in the fashion newspapers and become the draconian law for the whole beautiful world was raised. If our educated ladies always knew the sources from which their latest fashions emerged, they would often not be so eager to imitate them, although it is of course notorious that the so-called beautiful world in Paris knows this very well, and that the leading specimens themselves the demi-world expressly takes as a model Even the famous epigrammatist Logau says very nicely:

Servants generally carry their masters live;
Should it then be that France is master, but Germany is a servant?
Free Germany, be ashamed of this disdainful creeping!

The truly German man considers it unworthy to present the figure of a French fashion journal, and also has no heart for a woman who makes her toilet according to the latest Parisian taste every morning. The vain people are usually the shallowest; they seek their spiritual emptiness, their inner nakedness, to cover up with splendor and change of clothes. The phrase “clothes make the man” is one of the large number of proverbs that are not or only partially true. It is not the dress that makes the man, but the man who makes the dress; what the tailor is in the purely material sense is what man is in the moral sense; and when Logau says "foreign costume" in his epigram:

Alamode - dresses, Alamode senses,
As it changes outside, it also changes inside,

so these verses are in any case more correct the other way round, even if they do not rhyme:

Alamode senses, Alamode dresses,
As it changes inside, it also changes outside.

It is understandable that among all peoples the French lead the way in the mastery of fashion; it fits best to his national character and is rightly the field of his instability and changeability, his addiction to extremes; it offers our dear neighbor the opportunity to show his aesthetic significance and serves as a leash, by which he has been dragging all peoples for centuries. From the lace-up chest to the Greek shirt dress, from the close-cropped head to the allong wig, from the jersey to the waste of fabric on the hoop skirt, from the swallowtail to the sackcloth, we were monkeys enough to imitate all extremes including transitions. Of course, we must not be completely unthinking the English either. It is well known that in all zones the regulations of the London tailors are obeyed with a similar willingness to those of the Paris milliners. Both have their own folly, their own followers, and their own contrasting systems.

Regarding the French word "mode" which seems to be imported with the goods from the English, Danes, Dutch, Germans and other nations at the same time, several etymologists have been pissed off to find out from which country that box of Pandora comes from that has already caused so much harm originally came. There can be no doubt that the first reason for the word fashion was the Latin “modus”, even if one must not hide the fact that not a single one of the many meanings of modus expresses what the Parisian hairdresser z. B. understands by their bonnet à la mode. It goes without saying that fashion is feminine in spite of its descent from modus, since the same applies to it as an old poet said of women: Varium et mutabile semper femina. I hope my beautiful reader does not understand Latin.

Even if there are still an immeasurable number of yellow, lined-up, black and even white people who have never put a felt or silk plush hat on their heads, to whom the grace of pantaloons with strings is still unknown and who are nevertheless thanks to their clothes Those who wear them or even those who don't wear them find quite pretty, our anti-picturesque costumes gradually spread almost over the whole globe after the course of great epidemics, such as plague, cholera, etc. Ships bring boxes and bales to the furthest shores of the ocean every day to spread the infection. Already there is no little corner on earth where one would not find some traces or at least attempts at European costume. In the middle of the wildest regions of North America, travelers leave modern clothing behind among the natives, and some mighty rulers of the calm sea clothe themselves on ceremonial occasions in an old felt or a pair of grease boots that once came to that area on a European expedition without arousing the laughter of his unfaithful men, while the chief would appear maddened to us and the stark contrast of his usual habitus with the civilized garment would make us laugh. The preference and admiration of the savages for the European costume is well known.

Besides, we are very different from the savages with regard to our clothes, but not with regard to our hairstyle and other decorations. It is a slander that the chignon, which is currently enjoying so much favor, is the mere creation of a bizarre idea among our ladies. The same thing has its predecessor, namely - we apologize - with the African beauties. As the traveler du Chaillu reports about the blacks living north of the equator, one of the requisites of perfect beauty there is not only an incised face and a mouth that has been deprived of front teeth, but also a handsome chignon, which requires untrimmed hair growth of at least 12 years. Even if the incisions in the face and the toothless mouth have not yet been reconciled with our concepts of beauty, the European beauties may not take it amiss that they have thoroughly adopted the hair sack from their black sisters for it. Also in terms of their lust for dandy, for smelting works, bright colors and strange habits, our elegant ladies have little advantage over the women of the savage. If they don't tear your nasal wall apart, they will perforate your earlobes, and you will tie your waist and feet together if they squeeze their noses flat or their foreheads are dented. Just like the savages, we clean ourselves with flowers, leaves, furs, feathers, shells, pearls, metals, pieces of glass, etc., only with the difference that those such objects are more in their natural state and we are more or less reshaped through the use of art wear, and whether the artificial transformation is always tastier than nature remains to be seen. Rings, bracelets and other jewelery of all possible materials and shapes are fashionable with all peoples of the earth; because people in the tropical climate live without clothes, but never without jewelry; the Australians and the inhabitants of the American jungle are clad in nothing but a few rings and feathers. And the most elegant Parisian women were from this costume. B. not far away at the time of the directorate. They took off shoes and stockings and put on sandals; they not only wore triple bracelets on their bare arms, but also rings on each toe and ankle, just like the native women in Hindostan or in Algiers. Ancient statues were used as models and dressed like the American Miss Adah Menken in the Gaité Theater in Paris today when she is tied to a wild horse à la Mazeppa, or like the red-haired Lorette Cora Pearl in the Opéra comique when she dancing the cancan in front of a princely patron. In the midst of a civilized state, in the midst of a civilized state, divine nudity transcended everything that had existed before. The mob of women who moved at the height of the revolution, which we call demi-monde today, appeared in silk, flesh-colored leotard with purple wraps and knee ribbons, and above them with a chemise that hung merely by a pair of narrow ribbons on the bare shoulders and the upper half of the Body completely free; the whole suit, as if woven out of air, weighed barely 16 loth. That was, of course, the extreme, but a lot of the fashionable Parisian women were approaching the same thing, and in the fashion journals of that time one could no longer find Greek women and Roman women, but characters whose costumes deserved the name à la sauvage rather than à la Grecque ; and such fashions were not restricted to France, even if in Germany and England as a whole the Greek women were taken as models rather than the savages. So one wrote in the winter of 1802 from Frankfurt a. M, that all the ladies there were immersed in Greek, like Achylles in the Styx, and the story tells us of the clever Berlin women that they tried to bring the nudities to some extent in harmony with the climatic conditions of their home by using leotards.

As early as the 17th century, the Low German poet and satyrist Hans Wilmsen Lauremberg from Rostock spoke of the evil fashion certificate, and said that fashion often eats up the stuff like a cancer (of course the disease, not the animal) until people are almost whole go naked. In his joke poem "Van Almodischer Klederdracht" it says in vv. 275-296:

- - - de mode is as de evil crevet,
When you first come to freten anhevet,
So he keeps on gripping and vetteret al to hope;
Wat ümme and bi em is, everything blifts in the lope.
De modekrevet booklet al stive üm sik frozen,
The men underbaert heft he al wech asked;
Twe klene knevelkens morals still under the nesen,
Otherwise one would not desolate that one was to be blamed.
De fruwenhuve heft ok I'm not lucky
Darvan is al verteert dat greatest and best piece,
Dre stremelkens are still there, they can now see them.
De schöte are soon changed, darto de halve mowe;
De is al upgeteert bet schir on the Elbe.
Wil he so faren fort de kleder wech to gnagen,
So there will certainly be that in körten
Hey ok upfreten the shirts, sampt the schörten
And will not save on van kledern nalaten.
Everything will be tarred with hat and hair.
So mote wi wol the Indians naapen
And yawn when de leve God gave us a heavy blow.
If ik dat liker scholde see, then ik mi would
Sick and bursting to laugh, hi hi hi.

The morality of fashion has little to do with advancing civilization; rather, we find that the same absurdities and follies persist through centuries, and that certain customs are common to peoples who are at the most varied of cultural levels. The piercing and ornamentation of the earlobes with the Indians, the Eskimos and the Negroes exists as well as in the South Seas, in the Caucasus and in Europe at all times up to the present day. It almost seems to us as if, with increasing culture, we were straying further and further away from nature and distorting ourselves more adventurously than the most perverted peoples of the past. It is a long way from Eve's fig leaf to the salon decoration of a Parisian woman in 1867 post Christum natum. Since the fall of man into the world, the sinner no longer tolerates himself as his creator created him, but presents himself according to a new cut and according to his own idea in a form that often deviates significantly from the original.No sooner have we been born than we have to put up with being tied up in bandages like an Egyptian mummy, and playing the first caricature in our lives as a baby with a sucking bag. Later it is not difficult for us to continue the comedy of our own free will, by wrapping ourselves with balls of linen, wool, cloth, etc., and shaping our bodies into a doll which often forms the most ridiculous parody of the natural human form. If an inhabitant of Saturn happened to land on our planet and should judge the real form of the earth child by the external shape of his clothes, he would be exposed to the strangest and most amusing mistakes. After all, we ourselves are hardly able to recognize some of those who have been known to us for many years as soon as they are presented to us in puris naturalibus, and some of my dear readers may still remember that picture from the “Flying Leaves” where a whole higher board of daughters screams fearfully and flees in all directions in horror when the elderly governess appears at night without her ornate toilet.

Both sexes try to occupy a larger or a smaller space through their way of dressing than nature has instructed them. Even with the savages we notice the tendency to enlarge the figure by means of high headdresses; and with the educated nations both the narrowing and the widening of the forms become an art and science which one pursues with diligent diligence. You stretch one part and press the other together, you tie up on one side what you stretch, stuff and reline on the other; you add elevations where there are depressions and show emptiness where there is abundance, just to leave nothing as nature created it. In female clothing, the tendency to widen the hoop skirt has given rise to the tendency to narrow, but that unattractive and disastrous invention of the lace-up breasts brought about, which planted the germ of death for many young and flourishing lives and which stunted another generation even before birth. Under Louis XIV, the human eye's sense of beauty demanded, among other absurdities, the wasp waist, which for the noble lady could not become deep and not tight enough, whereas previously the waist was high below the breast and armpits. One wanted to look as similar as possible to an insect, which has an incision in the middle of the body and from there becomes too broad at both ends. If one would rather compare the shape of the chest with a cone or funnel standing on its tip, the lady who was in it had almost exactly the shape of an hourglass; she had to walk stiffly and straight, as if she had been carved out of wood. What was left of feminine grace and grace when the bosom was flattened from below like a board or the lower tip of the so-called blank bill held up the clothes like a beak? None of the most splendid patterns of feminine beauty that have come down to us from antiquity, therefore, show even a slight approximation of such a waist, forced by tight constriction. When the Australian Negroes chop up and cut up their chests, the New Zealanders tattoo the entire surface of their skin, the Botocudos wear rings, pens, and blocks in their noses, ears, and lips, or the Chinese disfigure their feet, all these follies are of the kind them on the scale of a morometer, d. H. Foolishness, if there were such a thing, would be only a few degrees higher than our foolishness of tying up bodies.

If you want to find out more about how the lace-up chest disrupts the breathing process, blood flow, digestion and blood cleansing in the liver, you should read Professor Bock's popular essays in the “Gazebo”. One would think that such pernicious fashions could not last long; however, it has not yet been overcome by reason or the aesthetic sense of the modern world. Rather, the current corset as the basis for the female suit, to which most of the other items of clothing are attached and on which the shape and appearance of the entire suit largely depends, can no longer be dispensed with; but then it must at least be made of elastic material and without an insert of solid rods, so that it hugs the outline of the trunk and does not impair its natural shape.

Even today's male costume hardly allows the actual body shape to emerge at all; Skirts, tailcoats, waistcoats and trousers force the body by means of their cut, their seams, bulges, etc. into shapes that create a caricature of the beautiful human body. We actually go in bags that have been put together. The tailor creates false folds on our long trousers, which do not correspond to the body shape. The mockery of the tailcoat would be quite appropriate for the monkeys, if they dressed at all; but why is a completely unmotivated tail attached to us? perhaps the same was created only for the prosaic bags, which the Middle Ages used much more aesthetically as a special appendage to delicate straps or chains. If, however, we leave the point of view of aesthetics, we must admit that the tailcoat is very useful, namely in that it satisfies the need to have different clothes for everyday and festive occasions in the cheapest way; for if one stops to designate the festive dresses as such by the cut, gold embroidery, fur trimmings and other luxuries will again have to serve to distinguish them.

If in the male sex the pursuit of enlargement gave rise to the harem pants of the 16th century, the pursuit of indentation, on the other hand, created the tie, neck tie and parricide, all inventions that prevent people from turning their necks and freely in all directions watch; he should only look straight ahead at the things that he is to a certain extent bumped into, similar to the cab horse with blinkers, which is also not allowed to see its surroundings to the side. The stiff collar, which is now happily dying out, used to be the symbol of human machines, namely the subordinate bureaucrats and soldiers trained according to regulations. Even the skirt collar sometimes embarrasses us. In the baroque age of wigs, when the head was tortured for hours every day and always had to be painstakingly spared so that nothing would get out of order, it could still move more freely than in more recent times, when fashion sometimes calls for a skirt collar that is clumsy like a horse's collar is on the neck.

Our belts, buckles, suspenders, cords, garters etc. are tight restraints for free movement; but without grumbling and with contempt for death we plunge into this slavery. The body has to get used to the joints into which it is driven early on, and it does so; it is even astonishing what he learns to endure and patiently endures in this way. The better one is dressed, the worse it is to breathe, digest, walk, stand or sit. The German professor in a dressing gown and slippers is a picture of well-being and cosiness; the antichambrian courtier but with a stiff tie, patricides, cuffs, gloves, tailcoat and tight pantaloons may also have a sweet smile on his face, but inside is very mediocre. The many nausea and ailments, indeed the constant little ailments, which the demands of the suit entail, form an extensive chapter in the history of human life, and they should claim a place in world history because of the deplorable influences they have on Practice the fate of the peoples.

One might believe that if our clothing were also unfavorable to the development of the body and the freedom of its movements, it would certainly take account of the climate; That too is vain superstition, this main condition of a sensible manner of dress is certainly not fulfilled. After the light and airy suit of our ladies, we would often assume that we were living in the hot zone, if other simultaneous observations did not clearly remind us that our earthly existence was at latitude 52 ° north. If you see the elegant ball lady with bare arms and a bust that is in violation of the medical police at 10 ° C below freezing point, you involuntarily get the eerie feeling as if you would like to pull a warm fluffy skirt over your own goose bumps. If one now looks at the enormous wagons, one should not imagine that wet precipitation occasionally occurs on the earth, but that the streets of the city are kept just as clean, smooth and dry as salon floors by the police. With six cubits of the most precious material you sweep up the street rubbish, stir up the dust, drag in the way trunks, bundles of straw, dry tree branches with you for hours and finally let yourself be torn off your tail by several hand's breadths, and not by the powerful appearance of a peasant lout, but through the faux pas of a gallant gentleman; for it is not even possible for the most skilled of men to escape that evil fate under all circumstances. The unfortunate wrongdoer apologizes as best he can; Madam is able to smile pleasantly at herself, as if nothing had happened, and it is only at home that the storm breaks out on the completely innocent husband, who has no sense of harm.

The current ball costume for women only seems to have been invented to make even the most graceful dancer appear as Hans Clumsy and to dampen the men's already waning passion for dance even more. Long towing dresses made of a fabric so thin that it seems to be woven out of air, with heavy floral decorations attached to it, hairdos on the head that yield to every quick movement, and the music often at a tempo as if one were to be drunk with Bacchantes Dancing madness - under such circumstances, dancing indeed, as everyone will see, requires extraordinary prudence and dexterity on the part of the Lord, if he not only perform his own task, but also protect the beauty on his arm from all possible accidents should. Sometimes the dancing lady herself has no choice but to take her long tail of clothing under her arm like a parcel and turn around in circles with this burden. The heart of the manufacturer and the fashion merchant will laugh when he sees the dragging cloud of robes that surrounds the body of today's women from the waist down; but whoever has formed his eye on the unsurpassable marble statues of Greek art, their classical clothing and hairstyle, may despair of the modern taste of the fair sex.

The careless, flirtatious hairstyles of the ladies give the impression that they are half in the process of dissolving; a pigtail hanging from under the chignon and entwined with flowers looks as if it has just fallen from the head, and the enormously long, loosely twisted curls that fall over the shoulders make it seem as if the toilet has suddenly been interrupted been and remained unfinished. Nonchalant and airy, the female figures glide through the ballroom like Shakespeare's Ophelia, and as they pass you are tempted to stretch out your hand to receive rosemary and pansies. But the Ophelia figures shouldn't laugh or even dance, because then the vision disappears and all you see is a lady who you want to help to complete or restore her coif. The long falling curls are also reminiscent of those misunderstood dreamers who longingly search for impossible ideals, but never find them and languish mournfully; at the beginning of the ball these petties often look very seductive, but in the course of the ball develop more and more into a wild chaos.

The headdress is an article which, on its own, should require the serious examination of naturalists, doctors, and philosophers; A long and attractive chapter could be written about the relationship between women's hats and the climate, health, comfort, logic, aesthetic beauty, human dignity, etc. If one were to regard headgear in general as a means of protection against wind and weather, one would again be in a very naive error; because the hat often only covers the hair net or lies flat on the head as an overturned dessert plate, or is reduced to two straws that are pinned between the braids of hair. At other times the hats have an immense size and a perfumed bouquet, a fruit basket or an Indian bird's nest are enthroned on them. In 1782, as mentioned in the memoirs of the Baroness von Oberkirch, small, flat bottles, adapted to the shape of the head and containing a little water, were used to moisten the bouquet of natural flowers in the coffees and keep them fresh. That did not always succeed, but when the aim was achieved, as the Baroness thinks, it was very pleasant to look at. The spring on the head in the middle of the powder snow produced an incomparable effect.

It may be pretty and dressy to wear fine moss rose buds and epheum leaves on summer hats; But if apples, pears, potatoes, cabbages, yellow beets and other heavy bunches of fruit and vegetables or even whole filled flower pots grow on the women's heads, then this can of course be seen in a certain sense as a return to simple nature, but such natural jewelry is ugly, even if it is fashionable at times. We rise from the plant kingdom to the animal kingdom. Humans took away the scales from the fish, their plumage from the birds, their fur from the mammals, and at the expense of the animals themselves became the strangest animal of all. That may be wise and good in general, even necessary; only individual parts of the animal usually do not contribute to the ennoblement of human forms. Just to imagine the devil as ugly, we involuntarily add so many animal attributes to his otherwise human form, like the goat horns, the claws, the split serpent's tail, the horse's foot, finally the rooster feather on the hat and the two ravens. Today, of course, the culture that licks all the world has also reached out to the devil; his attributes disappear and, like some young men, he uses false calves. The wings of the angels serve as an expression of their spiritual, ethereal, ideal nature; only the head appears on the seraphim, surrounded by six wings. As attributes of the fool, we shall discuss the donkey ears, the cockscomb and the foxtail in more detail in the second chapter. The eagle's claws, which our butts grow on their fingers, find an eminently ugly fashion to my taste; Nature does not want to give us a weapon to scratch, we should not grab our enemies like a bird of prey or tear them apart with blood. For the rational person, to put it briefly, wings, feathers, tails, horns, combs, claws and other animal parts, as well as their artificial imitations as decorative objects, are always ugly, if not funny, and actually only allowed if they are to have some relationship with the wearer. The spurs which we have borrowed from the rooster may well be worn by a stable-master or officer, even when he is walking; But when people who rarely or never mount a horse walk across the street with tinkling spurs, this makes a foolish impression; There was, of course, a time when even chancellery lists, without ever having to ride the files to the registry, allowed themselves this renown. The Tyrolean archer, who, looking boldly and boldly at the world, wears his neck in his arm and his chamois beard on his wide-brimmed, pointed hat, is a very stately and picturesque figure; The falcon and the capercaillie or black grouse also adorn the skilled hunter; But when women put on magpies and peacock tails or put stuffed parrots on their heads, that is no longer an ornament, but only temporarily - fashion. The ladies themselves will not wish to be brought into any spiritual relationship with the bird species mentioned.

The principle: “The more eccentric the hat, the more ambiguous the lady” may have something right, may be applicable to all parts of the suit; but if the eccentric is really the fashion, it will be accepted by the most brittle in a comparatively short time. After some reluctance, the feeling of shame is pushed aside for a while, and considerations of decency, which existed yesterday, may no longer exist tomorrow.Before the rule of the crinoline, it was considered decent to wear the overgarment and all undergarments tucked up in dust and rain; It was rustic and hardly offended even prudishness, because it was fashionable, and this tyrant bows down everything, from the emperor and the empress to the house servant and maid. Fashion has soared to a prestige that even the most manly feelings and the most intelligent views hardly dare to defy. What seems so horrible and ridiculous at the beginning is expressed in a very short period of time and is then considered beautiful, even indispensable for a so-called noble appearance. Nothing is so tasteless that it couldn't become fashionable, and almost no one is so sensible that they shouldn't even go along with the most unreasonable fashions. Millions of the most educated Europeans do not hesitate to quickly imitate the ugliest costume; fashion has already led whole peoples to follies such as madness could hardly have imagined, and has withdrawn sums of money from them which would have been worth a better cause. The taste finds bells and spiked shoes, the appearance of a monk and a harlequin, an ancient goddess and a Hottentot beauty, leotard and tunic, lace-up chest and crinoline, trains and fountains, nudities and artificial difformities, puffs, bulges, saddles, slits, everything beautiful in its time. Almost every age shows that fashion was born; After all, even the average serious and simple costume of the Reformation period in the harem pants had its wild and fantastic caricature next to it and especially our time, which wants to be so wise, every moment some fashion ad oculos demonstrates how silly it is despite its wisdom.

One might think that in free America fashion would not be so capable of exercising its tyranny, and yet nowhere in the world is it more irresistible than here. With lightning speed, so to speak, the most absurd fashions penetrate into the most distant corners of the country with the continuous migration of peoples, which takes place from south to north and back, but even more so from east to west, and hardly are the first false calves or artificial curls appeared on Broadway in New-Vork, so enormous loads of those strange articles are already being shipped to the far west. A new machine, a new novel, a new item of clothing, or whatever new thing appears in the East, can certainly be found in all stores in Nebraska or New Mexico after 6 to 8 weeks. If beards are worn in Boston, the last hillbilly soon leaves his beard; and if the Jankee ladies think it is good and noble to have only two children, the whole noble world of women in the United States soon tries to follow their Eastern example. We leave the how here, of course, covered with a thick veil; but that z. For example, in Massachusetts the Anglo-Saxon lady thinks the raising of many children is mean, is unfortunately a statistically proven fact that gives serious food for thought.

The moral compulsion to follow a fashion prevails even among savages, who, as travelers tell us, blindly submit to the laws of the cruelest and most painful of fashions. The Negresses of the Manyanjas tribe in the interior of Africa, who claim to be the most perfect of beauty, do not yet wear crinolines, but have devised another means of giving their charms a higher level of development. To do this, they raise their upper lip two inches above their nose and carefully shave their black head smoothly. De gustibus non est disputandum. Imagine a bald head and a thick red lip that, when lying on a flat nose, resembles a grayish outgrowth. But the concepts of beauty are of a relative nature; the ladies of that tribe unconditionally adopt this fashion and flirt with a face which, as Livingstone reports, at first sight had such an effect on the missionaries that they all fled.

It is difficult to give a clear and completely sufficient definition of what is good taste at all. The Russian thinks certain things are pretty which the English find downright abhorrent; and such differences in the views of two nations extend not only to external objects, such as clothing, but also to mores, manners, and the whole of social life. The decency based on social forms and conventions is nothing more than a matter of taste. There is, of course, a foreign code and a code of courtesy, the laws of which are fairly generally recognized and followed in the educated society of all countries; but this code contains at the same time very many points on which the nations disagree, and it would be just as difficult to come to a perfect understanding on the concept of decency as on that of taste. Why does the French find it indecent for a young girl to go for a walk or ride alone with a young man, even to receive him at home, while the English find it quite natural and proper? Why does the English again find it quite indecent that the French lady receive visits in her bedroom, while the Frenchwoman declares the English view that the housewife's bedroom is a sanctum sanctorum as an affected pruderie de trés manvais goût? A French girl would blush her bridegroom's suggestion to do them before the wedding, a request for a kiss with horror, while an English and a German girl would regard these licenses as quite natural and appropriate to the state of affairs and accept. A French woman, married or not, who comes to Germany finds it extremely offensive to have her clothes made by a tailor and not by a seamstress, as is the custom in many cities in our country. On the other hand, she uses a freedom in her language and expression that strikes the Germans and that is condemned as quite shocking by a delicate miss. The French woman is not at all embarrassed in pronouncing the words jambe, bas, chemise, etc., while the English woman is so chaste or even so brittle in her language that she prefers to use ancle instead of the word leg, and to designate only those items of clothing dares who are farthest from the skin; For those closer to home, she prefers to use the French expressions, if need be; the analogues of their mother tongue do not exist for them at all, as we also consider cotillon, corset, chemisette etc. to be more decent than the respective German translations. On the other hand, even a Parisian woman belonging to the educated class would not like to find that expression very decent, which I once had to hear from a lady belonging to the high English aristocracy to my no small astonishment. “I am delighted,” I said to her, “to see how good the Madeira air is for you; You look much better than a few months ago. ”-“ Oh yes sir, ”answered the cheerful and pretty girl,“ I am growing here as fat as a pig. ”(I'm getting as fat as a pig here.) In the case of someone who would have been in love with the girl, this expression might be apt to depress the thermometer of love by several degrees. After what has been said, however, we refrain from further explaining the concepts of decency and taste in general, and turn again to the special consideration of the human manner of dress.

We have become so used to the fact that fashion does not turn to climatic conditions, that there is a certain lack of logic in almost every part of our clothing, that it hardly occurs to us that it could be otherwise. In her toilet the lady no longer asks what is useful and necessary; she has long known that what is appealing is the main decisive factor. She doesn't dress, she cleans herself, and dressing is an art that must be learned and that is believed to be assistants and pupils. We are not talking about the so and so many millions of people who wear their skirt exactly as father and mother have worn it, how son and daughter will inevitably wear it again, and who may not even think about their skirt at all could be worn in any other form; The art of dressing exists only for a small minority of humanity, for that delicate flower of society which is the expression of the prevailing culture in all nations. This art, however, remains rather remote from the field of aesthetics, and yet it should dictate laws to the costume to model itself according to the beauty lines of the body, to follow the outlines of the body in a supple manner like a second thicker skin and to follow the movements of the limbs as a whole To grant freedom of primal grace. Instead, the vast majority of all costumes give the impression that they not only want to scorn common sense, but also want to overturn the conditions of beauty. As Vischer says in his aesthetic, clothing should not be an obstacle to the body appearing, but should rather be a continuation of the body shape, as if it were expanded into an echo, should show its formation and movement as an “echo of the shape”. This meaning does not have any other costume to the same extent as the Greek and Roman, which alone or preferably may be designated as plastic.

The classical peoples understood the union of garment and body better than our time; they showed the forms of the body and the forms of the garments in their beauty next to each other, there the lines and swellings of the limbs and muscles, here the garment in its folds and breaks, freely unfolding with light and shadow. The extremities were carried almost entirely free; Pants were considered barbaric to the Greeks; he even left his head uncovered, where he did not need the protection of a helmet, a sailor's cap, or a traveling hat; The tunic, held by a belt, fell down wrinkled and comfortably on the torso, and over it was thrown the wide woolen cloak, which only followed its own laws in throwing and folds, which was not sewn and hung on the body with false tailor's folds, but wanted to be worn as a moving, lively, personal dress. In our costume, on the other hand, the body shapes, as well as the lively rich folds of the robe, are excluded. We literally build a transportable hut around it to protect the body; After all, the production of a piece of clothing is really referred to by the word "build". If we do not want to regard our tailor as a master builder, we must at least admit that we surround ourselves with a shapeless, stiff sleeve that completely conceals the muscular play, and that we have an inanimate, if possible round, stuffed bowl create that no longer corresponds to the body shape. The crab shell or the shell of the turtle seems to lie at the bottom here, and was definitely the model for the soldier's cuirass. If the hussar uniform and the lace-up skirts were not invented earlier by uncivilized peoples, we would have invented them anyway, because originally the cords are nothing more than symmetrical replicas of the individual ribs. The embroidered and laced costume first passed over from the oriental peoples to the modern Greeks, Hungarians and Spaniards. But the symmetry is forcibly forced upon us by cords and animal shells, and yet the symmetrical body by no means requires symmetrical clothing in order to appear beautiful. On the contrary, the sometimes straitjacket-like uniform in its mathematical embarrassment is unsightly and, as is well known, very hated by the visual artist. In contrast to our striving for symmetry, the ancients therefore preferred throwing clothes, because it avoids any constraint and yet does not abolish the symmetry of the body, but only veils it.

The old Teutons still believed in body beauty and loved the tight clothing. As a Nordic people, in need of veiling and shameful, they introduced new pieces into the ancient costume, namely trousers for men and bodices for women. The trousers actually make tunics and stoles superfluous to such an extent that a doublet would suffice instead. But this conclusion is not yet drawn; At the beginning of the Middle Ages the ancient forms still cover the new ones; A tunic with sleeves and reaching to the knees is worn over the tight trousers and the toga remains as a general dress of dignity and honor, only not falling freely, but held in place by a button on the chest. Only later does the tunic go into the doublet, the toga into the coat. But then, in the further course of the Middle Ages, the most unattractive and unnatural costumes gradually develop. Perhaps it was first Christianity, which, by generally sharpening the moral feeling, contributed to greater covering of individual parts of the body, perhorrescent the ancient nudities and inadequately concealing garments. In our century, too, the formerly unclothed inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, with the adoption of Christianity, at the same time took on clothes and discarded their nudity.

The feudal system, which then developed in the Middle Ages with its warlike and box-like institutions, brought the weapons to bear and made the armed costume the general fashion for a long time. The crusades, which aroused the imagination of the peoples and awakened new ideas in Europe, brought the colorful splendor of the oriental dress up in the thirteenth century, and the riches of Spain created a luxury that often degenerated into exuberant opulence and was very clearly revealed in costume. In addition, the growth of hierarchical violence finally introduced a lot of simple and sinister monks' costumes, so that the medieval world of fashion gave a very strange and colorful mixture and in a surprisingly vivid way reflected the unbound, unfounded, adventurous and fantastic character of its time. We recognize barbaric rawness next to childish pompous love, wild belligerence and unbridled debauchery next to tender and chivalrous appreciation of women, stiff court ceremonies next to the casual affluence of the middle classes, princely despotism next to the free bourgeoisie etc.

Just as clothing characterizes the individual on a small scale, so it is the unmistakable mirror of society on a large scale; it is an emanation of the general taste of the people, a child of the zeitgeist and of the same character as it. It is mostly only apparent when a single person who sets the tone, even an empress, introduces a new fashion; usually she did not create them anew out of herself. Rather, fashion is already prepared through the course of history and is closely related to it, even if this is not always immediately recognized by everyone. Fashion is not something isolated that arises or exists by itself, but has its inner reasons for its existence. So it generally marks a longer period of time, but sometimes it also does a single individual the honor of illustrating and satirizing his actions. When the finance minister Silhouette, who is known to be derisively laughed at by Madame Pompadour in Brachvogel's “Narciss Rameau”, aroused general reluctance in 1759 through a mass of unfortunate expenses, caricatures were directed against him in abundance, which the French are so fond of masterfully understands, and fashion thereby assumed a peculiar character of poverty. They began to wear overskirts without pleats and called them à la silhouette, they made trousers without pockets and called them à la silhouette, cans without decorations were baptized à la silhouette, and so on. The fashion then passed, but that term for a black-drawn portrait en profile without eyes has been preserved to this day. When Louis XV. died, and as a result of which there was more joy than sadness, fashion again quickly sought to express this zeitgeist, in such a way that the ladies attached ears of corn to their headgear as a mocking reminder of the famine during which Ludwig the much-loved was Had become a Corn Jew. In these examples, fashion takes the place of the best epigram that the French nation's ridicule could have devised, and interprets public opinion more intelligibly than the entire press could have.

Who doesn't know that fashion is taking over every famous or notorious personality, every outstanding event, every epoch-making invention? As soon as the people speak a lot about a person or thing, the first best item of clothing is given the honor of bearing that person or thing's name.Soon everything is called Cagliostro or Bosko, soon everything is Marie Antoinette, Napoleon, Blücher, Nelson, Suwaroff, Catalani, Jenny Lind, Pepita, Viktoria, Garibaldi, Bismarck, etc. According to a letter from Hans Wachenhusen, the Etoffe Bismarck is instantly very popular in Paris; Of course, when it comes to fashion, one can only speak of moments. The same applies to the so-called fashion colors; a well-known red z. B. was given the name Pompadour, and the pale yellow color that is typical of unclean laundry was named after the Spanish princess Isabella, daughter of King Philip II and wife of Archduke Albrecht of Austria, who made the vow to her in 1601 Not to change shirt until Ostend was conquered, which happened three years later. At another time, everything that wants to be “Bon ton” has to be dressed in Couleur d'Amaranthe or d’Aurore, Celadon or Chamois, Carmoisin or Incarnat. Then the "Dernier goût" again requires the cornflower blue, the clay yellow, the gossip rose red, the cow dung green, the chocolate brown, the Havana color, the snow white, the flea color, a thousand transitions and dirty colors, the gray and purple in all shades, the Prussian colors streaky or Checkerboard-shaped, the German imperial colors, which Fraulein Nitschke is said to have invented in Jena in 1616 when she was embroidering a flag for the fraternity there, (see H. Grote, Gesch. d. Welf. Stammwappen. Leipzig 1863. p. 121), and finally is the noblest raven black, so that our social circles, even the balls, are like gatherings of grieving families.

Fashion does not seek to evade the influences of art and literature either, e.g. For example, that blue or green tailcoat with yellow buttons, which a few decades ago referred to the poet, literary figure or simply a lost genius, is nothing more than the remnant of the so-called Werther costume, which came up through sensitive literature in Germany and initially fell under caused a sensation in the young man's world. It consisted of blue tailcoat, yellow waistcoat, yellow Nanking trousers, and high cuffed boots; it was the clothes in which Werther had shot himself, and all those who loved and suffered with him from then on also dressed in his own way; Even the sensitive ladies had to consider the costume worthy of admiration, because Werther says: “I want to be buried in these clothes, Lotte, because you touched them, sanctified them.” At that time the ladies wore fans made by the manufacturer Löschenkohl in Vienna Lotte was shown at Werther's grave, and Lotte fainted with Albert. Originally the Werthertracht was the riding costume of the English; In Germany, however, it generally became the clothing of writers, liberals and geniuses through literature, and especially at the beginning made its wearer interesting as something special, be it as a free spirit and a despiser of custom, or more as a world-pain-crazed and heart-sick painter. Even today foreign writers, when they describe German customs, want their audience to believe that all of us who are unhappy in love wore Werther's colorful tails with yellow buttons; we can definitely deny this. The young Goethe first brought the Werther costume to the court in Weimar in 1775. As a conscious party symbol, it appeared in a meaningful way for the first time at the meeting of the French notables in 1789, where the third estate, with its simple tailcoat, also opposed the gold-braided nobility. The nefarious Duke of Orleans, Philipp Egalité, climbed the sheepskin in green tails and yellow trousers on November 6, 1793.

So, as we have seen, man is also able to express certain social positions, political attitudes and even moods through his clothing, albeit not with the delimited definition with which the uniform denotes the belonging together of classes, offices and corporations. Regarding political attitudes, no costume plays a more important role than the hat, even if there is no cockade on it. In a sense, we wear our political creed on our heads, visible to the world. Everything that in 1789 thought liberal or addicted to innovation, be it political or literary, the revolutionary as well as the sentimental minds, everything was gathered under one hat, under the black top hat. At that time it came over from America to the old world, and was really nothing but the Puritan and Quaker hat which the enthusiasm for North America, which was struggling for liberation, suddenly brought into fashion in the liberal part of Europe. The simple, ornate suit in which the ambassadors of the Washington Congress appeared at the lush court of Versailles won the applause of the French, who always moved in extremes, and they adopted the simple, monotonously colored Franklin skirt and the high, wide-brimmed hat of the Quakers . Not such daring appearances, as we have called them since 1848 with the expression "Bassermannsche Gestalten", but rather the finest lions of the revolution and the buttocks of the convent wore a clumsy, misshapen, crushed and crumpled cylinder on a completely uncultivated head, which will not be soon was seen in Paris, when it also appeared in almost all European capitals and was generally considered a political badge for the people's men and republicans. He was therefore persecuted in many places by the police and the authorities, and no less violently opposed in the periodical press and in society by the royalists and the supporters of the old man. One thinks that the same black hat is meant here that we wear today, and which in the last 30 years, on the contrary, has been legitimized by the police, his opponent, the little gray or brown felt hat, as a carbonari or democrat. Sixty to seventy years ago there was exactly the same relationship between the triangular hat and the cylinder, so that an Englishman who wanted to research the political sentiments of Germany turned on his hat and finally drew up a map showing the status of the revolutionary and monarchical attitudes indicated by the appropriate hats. The period of restoration legitimized the cylinder despite its Jacobean origin; But the little felt hat, which appeared in 1848 not without political significance and was persecuted as a badge of demagogy, as a symbol of the red ghost, has now happily survived this martyrdom, since it has since completely shed that political significance; harmlessly it now covers the calmest, most honorable and most loyal minds; indeed, the most limited subservient understanding often peeks out from beneath it. With the cylinder, which still maintains the area of ​​the salon, like the triangular hat once, as a solid castle, the little felt now struggles in various forms; but whether he will be able to completely knock his opponent out of the field in a short time must remain at least as doubtful as a quick victory of our ordinary coat over the tailcoat, that gala costume of the first French empire, which up to our time the dress of festivity remained unchanged for ball and concert, wedding and baptism, congratulations and condolences. At court it is utterly impossible to appear in any other way than in tails, except in uniform. Perhaps the tunic, which was introduced in Prussia in 1646 to everyone's jubilation, gave it a little push and is the beginning of its end. (J. Falke, Gesch. Des Mod. Taste. 1866).

A similar battle as in the male world between the high cylinder and the low felt also takes place in the female sex. As is well known, the remains of the earlier umbrella-shaped lady's hat receded more and more from the forehead to the nape of the neck and ultimately only afforded this protection, while almost the rest of the head remained uncovered; one could clearly see that the old hat had outlived itself, so it arose 12 to 15 years ago young and sprightly opponents in the so-called "last attempt" and in the amazon hat, both of which, with their hundreds of variations, are now fighting it for life and death . Seldom has such an excellent expression been chosen for a cause, which had hardly escaped a prankster when it hit through, as for the really tasteful "last attempt" - namely to get to the man. If even this extreme remedy fails, then one can certainly give everything up for lost and quietly put oneself aside. Some prematurely withered people knew how to rejuvenate themselves through the last attempt, even old boxes from half a century could be seen blooming again in this costume, and even many shortsighted people who thought they saw a beautiful Amazon in the distance are uncomfortable in closer proximity was disappointed, or was shocked at a very short distance, like the missionaries before the black beauties of the Manyanja tribe.

Top hats and tailcoats belong together, both are now almost a hundred year old allies and loyally fight through the same fate with each other - proof that fashion, as fickle and innovative as it may be in the small things, has something conservative on the larger scale and in everything its arbitrariness nevertheless respects certain laws. Does it require z. If, for example, she wears a round hat, she also strives for a round dress; As is well known, men like to wear the short, round jacket with the small, low felt hat. If, on the other hand, something rises up to a point, does it hang accordingly? a tail at the bottom; therefore the dovetail tailcoat matches the tower-shaped cylinder, both stand and fall with each other. This peculiarity of the male costume also finds its analogy in the female; namely, the tall, pointed assault hats were fitted with rear flaps on the jackets of the ladies, very similar to those that were abolished twenty years ago on the soldiers' tails. (C. Lemcke, Pop. Aesthetics. Leipzig 1865.)

In a similar way there are other laws in fashion, e.g. B. that with long hairstyle the face is always beardless. In the history of traditional costumes we make the reliable observation that the longer the hair on the head is worn, the more the beard shrinks, and that a full beard never meets long hair on the head; that would be too much of a good thing. On the other hand, nowadays bald heads, which have become an involuntary fashion, tend to combine with a full beard, so that the hair seems to have slipped down from the parting onto the face. On the other hand, took z. B. During the Thirty Years' War the beard decreased almost exactly in the same proportion as the stately fullness of curls increased; the Peace of Westphalia already met him in a very modest form, and when under Louis XIV the false head hair grew excessively into a tri-lobed allong wig, the beard left the chin and lower lip entirely, and shrank on the upper lip to two small spots under the nose together until these finally disappeared and complete beardlessness became the fashion. While the so-called Henri quatre and the bare mustache had previously been very popular with the French, the wig, on the other hand, required a smooth face, if only because under it the expressions had to smile sweetly and play friendly.

In general, the question has repeatedly been raised as to whether the man should leave the beard given to him by nature or wage a war of annihilation against it that lasts to the grave. Van Helmont and other Dutch scholars claim that Adam was created without a beard and that it only grew after the fall of man. Refute that who can. The angels, as the same astute Van Helmont assures us, have no beards; the English generally think of them as feminini generis; we Germans, on the other hand, like to believe that women are angels, but not the other way around. The aforementioned van Helmont deduces from these facts that it is a sin not to shave; yet this strange casuist, despite his hatred of beards, wore at least one mustache himself.

For the Greeks, the full beard was the badge of the wise men and philosophers who, as Lucian thinks, garnished followers and students with their bearded dignity. Growing one's hair and beard was generally seen as a sign of mourning for men, while on the contrary for women it indicated mourning to deprive themselves of their most beautiful adornment. The man placed such value on his wife's hair that he swore by the beauty of this ornament; Of course, out of jealousy, he could sometimes have his wife's head shaved so that no hair remained visible. Shaving did not become fashionable in Greece until Alexander's time, which his soldiers first enjoyed before the battle of Arbela in 331 BC. B.C., had the beard removed, for the reason that the barbarians, their enemies, could not grab them by the beards and thus capture them. If in our time the Emperor of China had been just as clever, he would have had his soldiers cut their long braids before sending them to fight the English and French; for hundreds of the brave warriors of the heavenly realm, when they fled, were gripped by their braids and dragged powerless as prisoners into the camp of the allies. The warriors of the modern age do not love smooth faces, like the invincible hosts of the great Macedonian king; rather, they give themselves a martial appearance through strong beards or use the beard shape of their warlord as a model.

The beard contradicts the spirit of the Middle Ages; if we may infer from the old tombstones, monuments, and paintings, the smooth face was the rule, and all beard shapes were exceptions; especially since the mustache occurs only very rarely in Germany and is an absolute impossibility for the taste of the Middle Ages. There have even been cases where wearing a beard was forbidden by the police or, on the other hand, was ordered as an insulting punishment. Two things are of course an exception: old age and high dignity. In the highest regions and among the heads of the earth, the short full beard was not uncommon; especially since the 11th century it was considered a distinction for both secular and spiritual princes. Emperor Heinrich II., Friedrich Barbarossa, Rudolf von Schwaben and a large number of popes wore their beards in abbreviated abundance around their faces. The whole rest of the world, lay people and priests, knights, citizens and peasants showed a perfectly smooth face, and despite their miserable social position the barbers may have been better off than they are today. All the crusaders, the heroes Gottfried von Bouillon, Raymond of Toulouse, Boemund, the beautiful Tankred and comrades, they all went beardless to the holy war. The penitents and pilgrims, on the other hand, who were only allowed to give their bodies the most necessary care, let grow every little hair that nature gave them; The pious men had the strange fate of having to agree on this with people who were otherwise very dissimilar to them, especially in religious views, but whose way of life also prevented them from taking care of the face, namely with the robbers and murderers of profession and with the despised Jews. The latter are generally characterized by strong beard growth; the Polish Jews have even become proverbial because of it. (J. Falke, German. Tracht. Und Modenwelt. Leipzig 1858.)

The beard and its changing fashions seem to have their own history in every country, and the various beard revolutions in France are particularly interesting. Unfortunately, our topic does not allow us to go into the history of beards in more detail, we only mention that the French and English kings, with the exception of Charles VIII and Henry VII, almost all have smooth faces, as do their contemporaries among the Burgundian ones Dukes and even under the German emperors, Friedrich III. and Marimilian, (from 1440-1493-1519), are still completely beardless. During the Reformation, beards began to grow more generally; Henry VIII of England paused him very briefly, whereas his daughter Elisabeth was a great friend of hairy faces. The beard, as we see it in Shakespeare's portraits, was her particular weakness, and Esser, Leicester, and Raleigh all courted the virgin Queen with goat beards of the same kind. During the Thirty Years' War the beard was fashionable in all forms: Moscherosch says z. B.from him: "Every morning he is tormented with iron and fire, tortured and tortured, drawn and dragged: now like a mustache, now a snail beard, soon a virgin beard, a deller's beard, a pointed beard, a duck beard, a narrow beard, a sugar beard, a Turkish beard, a Spanish beard, an Italian beard, a Sunday beard, an Easter beard, a lill beard, a spill beard, a drill beard, a dirty beard, a utility beard, a trutzbärtel etc. “After the beard was replaced by the wig, it became too kept banned by the braid for almost a full century; it was only the French Revolution that brought it back into existence; In 1789 there was as little time to shave as to do your hair. The hair either fell down the nape of the neck in long strands or hung over the forehead in a tangled fashion, à la Struwelpeter; such a so-called head of Titus made no claim to the toilet; in a genuinely sansculottic spirit, he did not ask for the luxury of a comb or pomade; only the fingers were used as a comb from time to time, as it was in general good form to appear as dirty and torn as possible. Of course, the beard belongs to the head of Titus again, and the fact that it rose from the long sleep at the time of liberté, egalité and fraternity will be justified if you consider that during the Reformation it was precisely the general urge for freedom of the time that drove him back to the light after the beardless Middle Ages.

During the Empire and the Restoration, the beard disappeared again, in order to exercise a continuous regiment until today with the revolution of 1830. From that year on it became all the more popular when its enemy, the braid, became extinct. Nevertheless that one has not yet made it as far as this one to this day; To cite just one example, the braid, but never the mustache, climbed the pulpit, because it does not yet have the required amount of respectability, but always has something stupid about it in the eyes of the world. On the other hand, the short whiskers, formerly also known as the favorite, is the worthy badge of the clergy and the bureaucratic; he is thoroughly loyal and legitimately minded, while the full beard is free-spirited, not Republican, but perhaps seems to be. In the past, favorites were also taken to mean coquettish curls of hair, whether false or real, that hung over the forehead and temples, and with which one hoped to obtain faveur in the opposite sex. The modern shape of the English beard is known to be that it grows down from both cheeks and ends in long tips. The Yankee, on the other hand, has his characteristic beard on his chin and neck and leaves the rest of the face smooth.

With these beard fashions we close the general remarks of our first chapter and turn now to the special consideration of the fashions in the various ages.

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This chapter is part of the book Die Modenarrheiten

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