How has Irish immigration affected the US?

Country Profiles Migration: Data - History - Politics

A country profile contains information on immigration, flight and asylum as well as integration in a specific country. This information consists of:

  • Data and statistics
  • Historical developments
  • Legal and Policy Measures
  • Current debates in the countries.
Furthermore, the extensive sources and internet references at the end of each country profile offer the opportunity to deal more intensively with the respective country.

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Sandra Leiva, Marcela Tapia Ladino

Migration in Chile

The history of Chile is characterized by cross-border migration. To this day, the selective Chilean migration policy favors white European migrants. Immigration has always been dominated by people from Latin American countries.

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Irial Glynn

Migration and Migration Policy in Ireland

Emigration has always dominated Ireland's history. Over the past 25 years, however, Ireland has grown from a largely homogeneous country to an increasingly heterogeneous one, with almost a fifth of its residents being born abroad.

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New profiles

Northern Europe regional profile

The history of the Northern Europe region has been shaped by migration. People migrated across borders and sometimes borders across people. Today, some northern European countries are attracting large numbers of immigrants, while other countries are experiencing significant emigration.

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Regional profile South America

South America has seen various phases of immigration from Europe since its discovery in the late 15th century. At the same time, many South Americans have migrated to the USA and European countries since the 20th century. Due to the political and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela, intra-regional migratory movements are currently increasing.

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Regional profile East Africa

The East Africa region is characterized by high mobility. Voluntary movements within states and across national borders mix with forced migrations, which are not least triggered by armed conflicts.

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Regional profile North Africa

In current debates about immigration to the European Union, the focus is often on North African countries, as they are important transit countries for migrants who want to get to Europe via the Mediterranean. But there is also a high level of mobility within the region.

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Country and regional profiles

Country profile


After decades of civil war and internal conflicts, (forced) mobility is part of the everyday experience of most Afghans. The country profile highlights the extensive refugee and migration events from, to and in Afghanistan.

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Country profile


6.5 million people live in Jordan. The country borders with Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Iraq. Since the outbreak of the Syrian civil war in spring 2011, around 636,000 Syrians have been registered as refugees with the UNHCR. Since Jordan has not signed the Geneva Refugee Convention, they only have a limited legal status. Refugees make up almost 30 percent of the country's population, with Palestinians and Syrians making up the largest groups.

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Country profile


Lebanon hosts the largest number of refugees in the world in terms of population size. In addition to around 1.1 million Syrians, hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees have been living there for decades. Lebanon protects these refugees despite not signing the 1951 Geneva Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol.

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Country profile


Hundreds of thousands of Bangladeshis leave the country every year to work abroad. Your remittances are important to the country's economy. At the same time, Bangladesh has developed into a center of the international clothing industry, which has increased internal migration. Mobility is also an important adaptation strategy for people whose livelihoods are threatened by climate change.

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Country profile 18


Sweden is a country with a long tradition of immigration. As early as the 1960s, when foreign workers were recruited against the backdrop of an economic boom, Sweden did not pursue a classic "guest worker policy". Rather, the government assumed from the start that the migrant workers would stay in the country. Today, Sweden's integration policy is internationally recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful. Nevertheless, the current high level of immigration, especially of asylum seekers, poses major challenges for Swedish society: locals and immigrants compete for affordable housing, unemployment among third-country nationals is high and the right-wing populist "Sweden Democrats" are increasingly gaining political influence.

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Country profile


Austria is a country of immigration. The immigration of "guest workers" in the 1960s, the influx of asylum seekers and war refugees after the opening of the Iron Curtain and during the Yugoslav wars, as well as labor migration from other member states of the European Union have shaped the country's population. However, measures for the social integration of immigrants were only brought into being at the federal level in the 2000s. Since the end of the recruitment of low-skilled foreign workers, immigration opportunities for skilled and highly qualified workers have been created.

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Country profile 17

European Union

Cooperation on immigration and asylum issues is one of the most recent fields of European integration. However, since it began in the late 1980s, this collaboration has expanded rapidly. Today it is undoubtedly one of the core areas of the European integration project. Nevertheless, the Member States' claims to sovereignty remain omnipresent.

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Country profile 34


Luxembourg is Europe's immigration country par excellence: around 45 percent of its inhabitants are foreign nationals, and more than 60 percent have a migration background. Immigration is closely linked to the country's unprecedented economic rise in recent decades. The small country is of great importance as the seat of various EU institutions and as an international financial center.

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Country profile 33


Germany is a country of immigration. More than 22 percent of the population have a migration background. Despite a long history of immigration, it took Germany until the 2000s to recognize this reality. Since then, immigration law has been liberalized - at least for qualified migrants. Since the extensive refugee migration in 2015, the issue of asylum has (again) been the focus of public attention and has led to conflicting attitudes and reactions among the country's population.

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Country profile 32


Immigration has a long tradition in Argentina. During the years of great transatlantic migrations, the country developed into one of the most important destination countries in the New World. Immigrants from Europe were seen as the engine of social modernization. Today mainly people from other Latin American countries immigrate to Argentina. This migration challenges the dominant and popular notion that the Argentine nation is a "white society".

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Country profile 31

South Africa

South Africa is often referred to as the "rainbow nation" because of its multiethnic population. It is one of the BRICS countries and is considered to be the economic engine in the southern Africa region. The country has been attracting immigrants from Europe and other parts of the world since colonization by the Dutch and British in the 17th and 18th centuries. Migrant workers, especially from neighboring countries, immigrate in search of better prospects for the future.

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Country profile 12

United Kingdom

After the Second World War, the United Kingdom developed into a country of immigration. The high number of immigrants currently ensures that the topic is discussed controversially in public and in politics. For the first time, immigration from the European Union is at the center of the debates. The United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) in particular succeeds in winning votes with its anti-immigrant stance.

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Country profile 11


The Netherlands has attracted immigrants for centuries. For a long time they were encouraged to keep their own culture. However, that has changed since the 1990s. Since then, the pressure to adapt to Dutch culture has grown significantly; Successful integration has increasingly become a prerequisite for immigrants to gain rights. The electoral success of anti-immigrant parties has also contributed to this since the turn of the millennium.

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Country profile 29


The population of the People's Republic of China, founded in 1949, is ethnically and culturally very heterogeneous. In addition to the Han nationality, there are 55 ethnic groups, the so-called recognized national minorities. However, the proportion of foreigners is only 0.05 percent or 0.1 percent if people from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan living in China are included. The People's Republic is therefore not a country of immigration. It has only limited tools for managing migration. Rather, the Chinese leadership sees its integration policy task in the political, economic and socio-cultural challenges that arise from China's multi-ethnic nationality, which has evolved over time.

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Country profile 30


For a long time Greece was a country of emigration. This only changed in the 1970s. From then on, more people immigrated than left. However, it was not until the 1990s that the country began to create appropriate laws to control migration. An uncertain legal status still determines the situation of most immigrants from non-EU countries living in Greece.

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Country profile 28


Emigration is a persistent feature of the Philippine economy. Global political and economic developments over the last century have had a decisive influence on the country's strategies to respond to the changing international demand for labor. In the early 20th century, colonial relationships determined a large part of migration flows.

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Country profile 8


In relation to its population, Canada has given more permanent residents and refugees to immigrants and refugees than any other country since the 1980s. Thanks to cautious fundamental decisions, a comparatively high level of acceptance for mass immigration and thus for ethnic diversity could be created across all parties and in public.

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Country profile 27


Since the 19th century, Croatia has had extensive experience with migration, flight and displacement in different constitutional constructions and territorial configurations. Croatia can be described as a country of emigration, immigration, immigration and remigration as well as a country of origin and destination of flight and displacement.

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Country profile 26


Modern Albanian migration is unique in the world because of its intensity within a short period of time. By 2010, almost half of Albania's population had emigrated and lived abroad, while many more Albanians had migrated within the country.

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Country profile 25

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) member states

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) was founded in 1981 and comprises the following countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). As a collective term for all states represented in the Gulf Cooperation Council, the term GCC states or the term Gulf states are used in this policy brief.

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