Roman concrete is a lost technology
Lost technology of a great empire. Forgotten technology of antiquity or "memories of the future"
The mysterious structure of this Sumerian tablet is very reminiscent of a working Tesla transformer.
Antiquity left a gigantic legacy: philosophy, mathematics and democracy. Despite all these successes, the Greeks and Romans lived in the pre-industrial age. At least we're used to thinking. But antiquity had a completely different side. Ancient works reveal to us this world that is more daring than you can imagine. It seems to us that we live in an age of amazing machines, but just like 2000 years ago, ancient times admired ingenious mechanisms.
Traces of an old war. New facts
A short report by a famous researcher of ancient civilizations about the results of an expedition to Uzbekistan in autumn 2015. During this expedition traces and artifacts of the global war in antiquity were discovered.
Incredible technology of the ancient Slavs
The unique finds of the land of the cities - Gardariki - completely change the idea of Slavic civilization and the ancient Slavs.
Amazing old pictures from telescopes.
It is believed that telescopes were invented in Holland in the 17th century and Galileo became their first active "user". However, old lenses were made much earlier. For example, a carefully crafted lens made in BC (pictured) is kept in the Cairo Museum. In the same photo - a piece of ancient Greek mosaic depicting a man with a telescope. Have telescopes really existed since time immemorial?
In this picture we can see a stone that was found in Peru.
Mysterious hole in the ancient Roman city
In this photo we see a hole, a storm drain, through which rainwater enters the sewer system. It is located in the Italian city of Ancient Ostia. What is surprising here is that this hole and sewage date back to ancient Rome.
By the way, in this city is the famous ancient Roman public toilet.
Amazing megalithic holes
There are many megaliths in the world that have perfectly even and carefully made holes in them. It is believed that they were made manually from time immemorial. If you look at these photos, you are convinced that it will not work without special equipment and high technologies. For example, some of the holes are so deep that there isn't even arm's length enough to stick them into the stone - that is, they obviously worked here with the help of perfect tools.
Portland Vase - Secrets of the Old Masters
Portland Vase - a mysterious glass vessel from antiquity, exhibited in the British Museum. The vase was probably made at the end of the first millennium BC. This decorative vessel is made of two-layered dark blue and white glass depicting the figures of gods and mortals. The vase was found near Rome in the Middle Ages and for a long time belonged to the Dukes of Portland, from where it got its name. It is strange that many masters tried to reproduce this vase, but the most skilled carvers and glassblowers did not succeed. The technology of its creation has not yet been clarified.
West Barai - a mysterious reservoir in Cambodia
West Barai is an artificial reservoir in Angkor (Cambodia). The body of water is 8 km by 2.1 km and 5 m deep. It was created from time immemorial. The accuracy of the boundaries of the reservoir and the size of the work carried out are remarkable - it is believed that the ancient Khmer built it.
Nearby there are no less impressive temples - Angkor Wat and Angkor Tom. Pay attention to the accuracy of the layout of these complexes.
High technology in the Vedas
The Vedas are numerous ancient Indian treatises that were drawn up many centuries before Christ. But they store knowledge to the level of which modern science has recently risen or has not yet reached by historical standards. What can we learn from the Vedas that have come to us from time immemorial?
Ancient Siberian surgeons operated with perfect tools
TASS reports that Novosibirsk archaeologists found that surgeons in southern Siberia performed complex surgical procedures including craniotomy 2.5,000 years ago. At the same time, they had tools that were not yet available in Europe.
In the photo - ancient Roman medical instruments
"In the surgeon's arsenal at the end of the first millennium BC there was a surgical knife for cutting bones, saws, cutting tools, tweezers, medical probes and an analog of a modern scalpel - a lancet. Most of these tools are similar in shape and function to European instruments Surgeons at the same time. The only exception are saws, which cannot be found in Europe at this time, "said Pavel Volkov, leading researcher at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the SB RAS.
The scientist examined artifacts from the collection of the Minusinsk Regional Museum of Local Lore. N.M. Martyanova. Ancient surgical instruments have been found in the monuments of the Tagar culture, dating from the IV to III centuries BC. He also examined the marks on the surface of trepanized skulls (IV-III centuries BC) and compared them with the marks of use on a number of artifacts that could be used during medical operations in the early Iron Age in Siberia.
The scientist revealed that ancient surgeons used special surgical knives to cut bones. "Tools of this type leave marks when bones are cut, much like trepanirovannye turtles," said Volkov. Also in the arsenal of ancient doctors, special saws have been identified that do not have analogues in European archaeological collections.
The scientist also discovered tweezers and instruments that could be used as medical probes in the collections of the Minusinsk Museum of Local History.
"The combination of these tools can be considered sufficient, probably typical, for the instruments of a surgeon practicing at the end of the last millennium BC. The morphology and function of the tools is almost European," noted the archaeologist. He added that the manner in which the exchange of medical experiences between such fragmented people took place gave rise to more detailed archaeological research.
"But it is evident that during this period the people of southern Siberia had complex skills in surgery that were not inferior to the ancient Roman and ancient Greek surgeons," concluded Volkov.
Tagarians lived in the VIII-III centuries BC. In the steppes of southern Siberia, in the Khakass-Minusinsk Depression (the Republic of Khakassia and the southern regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory).
Lycurgus Cup - ancient nanotechnology
The British Museum is home to a rare antique glass known as the Lycurgus Cup. It is so named because it depicts the death of the Thracian king Lycurgus who was entangled and strangled by grapevines for insulting the god of wine. A unique feature of the mug is that it can change color depending on the lighting and the drink that has been poured. Scientists have long tried to solve the mug's mystery and found that the glass is literally "saturated" with silver and gold particles, the size of which is about 50 nanometers in diameter. Neither historians nor physicists have any idea how nanotechnology could be applied in ancient times.
Old pipes in Mount Baigon
In the Chinese province of Qinghai, there is a mysterious low mountain Baigon on the shores of the Toson Salt Lake. There are three caves in this mountain, two of which have collapsed, but one is open to exploration.
An amazing find was made in this cave - iron pipes of various diameters, rusted and almost "dissolved" in the rock surrounding them. Pipes form a complex system and are interconnected.
The most interesting thing here is the age of these pipes - according to experts, they were made several millennia before Christ.
Baghdad Battery - the most famous artifact
In June 1936, a mysterious “battery” was discovered in Baghdad - a 13 cm jar with a neck filled with bitumen. Inside the vessel was a copper cylinder with an iron rod. The pioneer of the battery, Wilhelm Koenig, suggested generating an electrical current of one volt.
Koenig discussed other exhibits at the Baghdad Museum of Antiquities and was surprised to find copper-clad silver-plated vases dating from 2500 BC. To see. e. As suggested by Koenig, silver was applied to them by electrolysis.
The Koenig version that the find is a battery was confirmed by the American professor J. B. Perchinski. He made an exact copy of the "battery" and filled it with wine vinegar. A voltage of 0.5 volts was recorded.
The secret of the priests of ancient Egypt
Many researchers claim that the priests of ancient Egypt knew the secret of extracting artificial gold from copper. But the appearance of excess gold could undermine the economies of countries and empires, so that that knowledge was destroyed in every way. The Roman Emperor Diocletian issued a decree in 296 that all Egyptian manuscripts about the artificial production of gold should be burned. It is possible that the Alexandria and Carthage libraries were destroyed for this purpose.
Ancient planes can fly!
One of the most popular articles on our site is "Airplanes of Antiquity," which deals with mysterious characters very similar to airplanes, even though they were made thousands of years ago. It is interesting that after reading this article, one of the fans of flight simulators became interested in the question - what happens if we build an airplane in the flight simulator with the same proportions as the old figures - will it fly or not? And the old Colombian plane took off and showed its excellent flight characteristics! See what it looks like!
Unidentified fossil objects - artifacts from the past
Is the staff of God an instrument from the future?
The Bible contains many descriptions of miracles. For example, the mysterious staff of Moses, which was given to him by God himself. This rod could turn water into blood, cause hail, carve water out of a rock ... It is interesting that in our time many of these miracles can be explained with the help of science! It turns out that the wand was just a tool, despite the fact that it was so perfect that it has not yet been invented in our civilization ...
Vajra is the weapon of the old gods!
The theory of paleocontact is getting louder and louder - there is increasing evidence that there was once high technology on our planet. With the advancement of technology, we suddenly find that the objects depicted in ancient frescoes or cave paintings are actually spaceships, airplanes, etc. One of those mysterious objects of the past is vajra - strange products that have survived to this day - as opposed to many references to paleocontacts that have disappeared over millennia ...
Our world has never been as advanced in a technological sense as it is today, but this in no way means that humanity has not lost some technologies in the course of its historical development that are currently extremely difficult or even impossible to restore. Many of these ancient technologies, inventions, and secrets of production simply disappeared over time, while the secrets of other achievements remained unsolved by modern science.
It is noteworthy that some of the technologies we actively use in modern life have been lost and then reinvented (e.g. an internal water system, road construction technology, etc.). However, many inventions have been forgotten and only become part of the legends. We draw your attention to the ten most remarkable technologies that humanity has lost.
10. Stradivarius violin
One of the lost technologies, dating back to 1700, is the manufacture of violins and other stringed musical instruments, perfectly owned by the famous Italian master Antonio Stradivari. In addition to violins, Stradivarius made violas, cello and guitars. The period of active use of this special technology for the manufacture of tools was shortened from 1650 to 1750 to a period of about a hundred years.
The Stradivarius violins are still highly regarded worldwide. The reason for this is the incomparable and unique sound quality for which these instruments are known. About six hundred such tools, made by the great master and his disciples, have survived to this day. The cost of each of these samples is many hundreds of thousands of dollars. In fact, the Stradivari family name has become synonymous with high quality when it comes to describing something extraordinary in any area.
The technology of making the famous violins was a family secret that only the founder (i.e. Antonio Stradivari himself) and his sons Omobono and Francesco knew exactly. When the masters went to another world, the secrets of production remained with them, but this did not stop many enthusiasts who try to discover the secret of the sound of Stradivarius violins to this day.
To uncover the mystery of the famous sound of instruments from the Stradivarius collection, researchers examined absolutely everything, including wood (and even the composition of the mold in it!), From which unique shapes of musical instruments emerged. The main hypothesis is that the famous sound of the master creations is due to a certain density of wood. However, there is an opinion that completely denies the uniqueness of the sound of Stradivarius instruments. So there is at least one official study according to which most people cannot distinguish between the sound of the Stradivarius violin and its modern counterparts.
The extraordinary complexity of the technologies that the ancient Greeks and Romans possessed literally baffles the imagination (especially when it comes to medicine). Among the many achievements of the Greeks, a special mention deserves a special mention that literally served to lift the spirits of discouraged and desperate people. In fact, we are talking about the first primitive antidepressant, nepenfa, also known as "forgetful wine" or simply "forgetful drink".
This technology is mentioned very often in the famous Odyssey written by the ancient Greek poet Homer. Some researchers believe that this is a fictional medicine, while others insist that a "forgetful drink" actually existed and was actively used in ancient Greece. It is believed that oblivion wine was first made in Egypt and the specific effect it had on a person is often compared to the influence of opium or the tincture of opium.
How was this technology lost?
Very often it seems that this "lost" technology is still used by some peoples of the world, and only our inability to identify the ancient drink with the modern equivalent is guilty of the mystery that has shrouded wine from oblivion. If this drink actually existed, it can be assumed that it was associated with Nepentis - the so-called oblivion grass that grows in the tropics (in fact, Nepenf is often called Nepentis).
The drug, which is obtained from the whole plant, is widely used in the modern world. However, researchers cannot say with absolute certainty that the Greek drink of oblivion was made from this herb as well. A much more common version is that claiming to be opium. Other likely candidates for Nepenf are bitter wormwood extract and scopolamine (an alkaloid found in bleached and many other plants).
8. Antikythera Mechanism
One of the most mysterious artifacts is what is known as the Antikythera Mechanism. We are talking about a unique mechanical device, mainly made of bronze components, discovered by divers at the beginning of the last century near the sea coast of the Greek island of Antikythera. This mechanism consists of 30 gears, cranks, and dials that can be controlled to determine and draw the positions of the sun, moon, and other planets.
The device was found in the remains of a sunken ship and dates from the first or second century BC.In fact, its true purpose is not yet fully understood, and the mystery of the find has puzzled various scientists and researchers for more than a hundred years. Most researchers agree that the Antikythera Mechanism was a type of primitive clock used to calculate the phases of the moon and the solar year. Some scientists even argue that we have the earliest analog of the first computer, or more simply a computer.
How was this technology lost?
The complexity of the Antikythera Mechanism and the astonishing accuracy with which the device was made suggest that it was not the only mechanism of its kind. Many scientists even suggest that such devices were widespread in those days. However, no other mention of mechanisms that would resemble anti-Cheeter creations was not recorded by any scientist until the 14th century.
This fact suggests that this technology has been lost for 1,400 years. The answer to the question "How and why did this happen?" remains a mystery, just as the fact remains why the anti-cheether mechanism is the only device of its kind so far.
The telarmonium, or as it was also called dynamo, is often referred to as the world's first electronic musical instrument. We are talking about a huge organ-like device that used the most complicated system of one and a half hundred electrical generators and other mechanisms to create artificial musical sounds. Then these noises were distributed to various listeners via telephone lines.
The telarmonium was developed and manufactured by the inventor Tadeusz Cahill, who patented his invention in 1897. At the time, it was the largest musical instrument ever made by man. In fact, Cahill created three versions of such a tool, one of which reportedly weighed over two hundred tons and took up an entire room.
The telarmonium had three systems with a key (as one would say - keyboards) and multiple foot pedals. This enabled the person using the dynamo to extract the sounds of various instruments, particularly woodwind instruments such as the flute, bassoon, and clarinet, from the telarmonium. They say that people who listened to the telarmonium were delighted with the sound of this primitive synthesizer as it reproduced the pure and rich sound of any instrument.
How was this technology lost?
Encouraged by the success of his idea, Cahill made big plans in the Telarmonium. Since his invention was able to transmit music over telephone wires, Cahill saw the future of telarmonium in having this synthesizer remotely create a solid background in places like restaurants, hotels, and even the home of private listeners.
Unfortunately, this device is a bit ahead of its time. The need for a powerful source of energy overloaded the first power systems considerably. The cost of the telarmonium was also astounding: the instrument cost about two hundred thousand dollars, which is the equivalent of several million now! It is clear that no one would have stopped mass production of such devices.
In addition, the early experiments in broadcasting music over telephone lines turned out to be a failure, as broadcast sounds very often broke into private conversations of citizens (the fault was an imperfect telephone network). In the end, the public admiration for telarmonium and its creator was gradually wiped out, and the inventions themselves were dismantled. To this day nothing has survived from the first three and last Telarmonies - even recordings of their sound.
6. Alexandria Library
Although not a technology in this case, the legendary Alexandria Library could not be included on this list as its destruction caused humanity to lose its accumulated knowledge for centuries. As you know, this library was founded in Alexandria about 300 years BC (it is believed that this happened during the reign of Ptolemy Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty).
Indeed, the opening of such a library was the first serious attempt to systematize information carefully collected in different parts of the world. The actual sizes of the collection created in the Alexandria Library repositories are not reliably known. However, it is estimated that this legendary structure contained more than a million scrolls at the time of burning.
Such a store of knowledge could attract the attention of the greatest minds of the time, among whom we should separately mention the Greek philosopher and poet Zenodotus and the ancient Greek philologist Aristophanes of Byzantium. These two people have made a great contribution to the implementation of scientific activities in Alexandria. The Alexandria Library was an extremely important asset that was more than actively replenished. According to legend, every visitor to Alexandria had to bring books they had brought into the city to take copies of them and put them in the famous library.
How was the Alexandria library lost?
The Alexandria library and all of its contents burned down around the first or second century AD. Scientists and researchers of various origins are still at a loss as to how this fire started. At this point, however, several of the most reliable theories were put forward. The first of them, based on some historical documents, suggests that the fire started accidentally through the fault of Julius Caesar. The commander set the enemy flotilla on fire, and the fire spread over the city, destroying the library.
There is another theory that the library was looted and burned by invaders, headed by the Roman Emperor Aurelian, Theodosius the First, or Arab Amru (Amr ibn al-As). Despite the fact that the Alexandria Library burned out, it is likely that many of its secrets and knowledge were simply stolen, rather than destroyed. We will never know what exactly has been lost and what has been preserved. It can be assumed, however, that some technologies have not been lost, but have been used successfully for many centuries.
5. Damascus steel
Damascus steel is understood to be an extremely durable type of metal that was widely used in the Middle East from 1100 to 1700 years of our time. The term "damascus steel" is most often associated with swords and daggers. Damascus steel blades are known worldwide for their unparalleled strength and cutting properties. It was believed that they could literally cut into half-stone and other metals (including blades made from other types of steel).
Modern scholars suggest that Damascus blades were made from a workpiece known as booty steel. This is a high carbon steel that was most likely imported from India and Sri Lanka. This is Byelig steel with a characteristic chemical pattern on the surface. The special properties of blades made of this steel were determined by a special technological process that made it possible to achieve not only exceptional strength, hardness and sharpness of the weapon, but also incredible flexibility.
How was this technology lost?
It is believed that the process of making damascus steel was lost as early as the 1750th year of our era. And while the real reason this technology didn't reach us is unknown, there are multiple versions today. According to the most popular theory, the ore mining necessary to make damascus steel began to decline. As a result, manufacturers of swords and daggers had to develop new technological methods for making other types of steel.
According to another theory, the recipe for making damascus steel was based on a special technology that made it possible to produce special elongated cylindrical structures (called carbon nanotubes, only a few nanometers long). It is believed that this technology was used completely by accident, and the blacksmiths of the time had no idea what exactly they had achieved. Masters made heavy swords from memory until they gradually began to simplify the process, which led to the loss of this technology.
Regardless of the technology used to manufacture damascus steel, however, it remained unique in that it is still not possible to recreate this material using the means at the time. There are dealers in many parts of the world who will offer you to buy a "real" Damascus steel blade, but the technology for making such copies makes it possible to obtain weapons that only vaguely resemble the famous Damascus steel swords and daggers.
4. The space program "Apollo" and "Gemini"
Not all lost technologies come from ancient times. Some only seem out of date because the advancement of modern technology means that they can no longer be used. However, the Apollo and Gemini space programs, developed by the United States' National Aerospace Research Agency (NASA) in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s, were a real breakthrough in space exploration. The reason for this was that manned spaceships for flights to the moon were created for the first time as part of these programs.
The Gemini project, carried out from 1965 to 1966, was part of a time when the study of the mechanism of human residence in space was carried out over a long period of time. In addition, this project investigated the possibility of changing the parameters of the orbit, connections, etc. In fact, it was in preparation for a larger project called "Apollo" which, as you know, resulted in the landing of humans on the moon (the project was successful in 1969).
How and why was development data forgotten?
Indeed, the successes and, above all, the knowledge gained during the development of the Gemini and Apollo projects were not lost. Many of the developments have even been used successfully in mankind's most modern launch vehicle - “Saturn-5? Many technologies have found application in other important projects. However, development and technology are not merged into a whole. And the use of this different material in no way means that modern scientists can thoroughly understand how they nevertheless managed to make the flight to the moon.
No matter how paradoxical this sounds, only very fragmented technological developments remained of this large and epoch-making project. Perhaps the fact that mankind has not evolved and improved in all the years of the program of manned flights to the moon (or other planets) is due to America's relentless thirst for development of space as a whole. And the development of the Apollo and Gemini projects themselves was extremely feverish, as the US then tried to get one step ahead of the USSR to get to the moon first.
Another reason why many developments are difficult to apply today is that in many cases the construction of certain technological parts has been invited by private aircraft contractors. Once the project was completed, senior engineers in this area were not in demand, and many of their developments went away with them. This wouldn't be a problem if NASA hadn't talked about a new moon landing project these days. The experience of those people who tried so hard in the 1960s would be invaluable.
Most surprising is the fact that numerous documents have been preserved in fragmented form and some of them have been irretrievably lost. In fact, NASA is now being forced to re-invest in the same research to produce many technical developments. In addition, entire design offices are working to completely restore the functional program of the Apollo and Jameni projects in order to use the knowledge gained in new projects.
Lost technologies are by no means always the result of excessive secrecy or, conversely, people's inability to retain these technologies for centuries. Sometimes the forces of nature intervene in the matter. This happened in the case of sylphium, an amazing herbal preparation that the ancient Romans used widely in cooking and medicine. This drug was made from the dill-like plant of the same name, which only grew along a certain section of the coast that is now part of Libya.
Tincture made from the fruits of this plant, resembling a heart in shape, has been used to treat almost all diseases, including fever, indigestion, warts, and many other diseases. However, the most notable property of this plant was its ability to act as a contraceptive (the first of its kind!). And it is this property of Sylphia that made this plant one of the most valuable products in ancient Rome. Sylph was so popular that his image can be seen on the ancient coins of Rome.
The information has reached our days that women should drink the juice of the sylphium fruit every few weeks, and this was quite sufficient to prevent unwanted pregnancy. It is also known that taking Sylphium can even terminate pregnancy (if you take it in a certain dosage and according to certain rules). Therefore, sylphium can also be considered one of the earliest methods of premature termination of pregnancy.
How was this technology lost?
Sylph was one of the most desirable plants that was widely used in the ancient world for the manufacture of medicines. Sylphine-based drugs soon became popular across Europe and Asia. Despite the wonderful effects of sylphium, the necessary species of this plant grew only in a certain part of North Africa along the Mediterranean coast. An insufficient amount of sylphium, against the background of the increasing need for this medicine, led to the fact that the plants were harvested more often and the plant did not have time to grow. As a result, the sylph simply disappeared from the ground.
Because certain species of this plant no longer exist, scientists have no way of studying sylphs to evaluate their remarkable properties, learn more about side effects, and generally confirm (or disprove) their effectiveness. It remains only to take the word of the historians and poets of Rome who sang the sylphs. However, it must be emphasized that there are other plants growing on our planet that are similar in properties to apparently extinct sulfium (they can also terminate pregnancy).
2. Romanesque cement
Concrete composition, similar to modern concrete, was developed in the 17th century. Today a simple mixture of cement, water, sand and stone is used everywhere, which is the most common building material. However, this recipe, known since the 18th century, is far from the first of its kind. In fact, concrete was used very widely in ancient times in Persia, Egypt, Assyria and Rome.
Historians believe that the Romans used concrete particularly extensively and that they were the first to improve the standard mix in a certain way, adding, among other things, quick lime with ground stones and water. Thanks to their excellent craftsmanship, the Romans managed to leave us such a unique legacy in the form of famous buildings such as the Pantheon (the temple of all gods), the Colosseum, the aqueduct (the famous water supply), Roman baths and so on.
How was this technology lost?
Like many other technologies and discoveries used in ancient Rome and Greece, the recipe for Roman concrete was lost in the early Middle Ages, but why this happened remains a mystery. According to one of the most popular theories, this recipe was a handicraft secret of masons. Therefore, the recipe for Roman cement died among the people who knew and used it.
Probably an even more interesting fact (than the fact that the recipe disappeared) is the rare properties of Romance cement that set it apart from modern analogues (especially Portland cement, which is most popular today). Buildings constructed with Romanesque cement (such as the Colosseum, for example) have been able to withstand the effects of weather and other factors for thousands of years (and there have been some in that great era!). At the same time, buildings made with Portland concrete wear out much faster.
This fact led to the emergence of a theory that the Romans added various additional substances and elements to cement, among which milk and even blood are mentioned in historical literature! Such experiments allegedly led to the appearance of air bubbles in the concrete, which contributed to the expansion of the material, as well as its resistance to temperature changes. As a result, even large differences in heat and cold had practically no effect on the famous Romanesque concrete structures.
1. Greek fire
Probably one of the most famous lost technologies is what is known as Greek or liquid fire. In fact, they are incendiary weapons that were actively used by the Byzantine Empire during the war. The Greek fire was indeed a primitive form of napalm and possessed very specific properties that enabled it to burn even in water. As you know, the Byzantines most often used such weapons in the 11th century, which is why it is believed that they managed to successfully repel two heavy attacks by the Arab conquerors on the way to Constantinople.
It is noteworthy that the Greek fire could exist in many different forms. Its earliest form made it possible to hold Greek fire in jugs and then throw catapults (just like grenades or Molotov cocktails) at them. Later, huge bronze pipes were installed on the ships, with huge siphons attached to them. With the help of such a device, liquid fire was broken out on enemy ships. In fact, it was a type of mobile and collapsible siphon that could be controlled manually (just like modern flamethrowers!).
How did this technology get lost?
In fact, Greek fire technology is not uncommon for our time. In the end, the modern military has been using such weapons for many years. However, as it turned out in 1944, technology has not changed for millennia. Then, for the first time in many years in battle, an analog of the Greek fire (closest), which is napalm, was used. In fact, this could indicate that the technology really disappeared after the fall of the Byzantine Empire and was then restored to its original form. The reason for this remains unsolved.
Meanwhile, many historians (as well as other scientists) have shown and continue to show great interest in the possible chemical composition of the Greek fire. According to the earliest theory, liquid fire was a mixture of a large dose of nitrate (potassium nitrate), which made the composition similar in properties to so-called black powder. However, this idea was later rejected because saltpeter cannot burn in water. In place of the old one, a new theory emerged that the Byzantine weapons spat out a burning mixture of oil and other substances (possibly quicklime, the same nitrate or sulfur).
The internet is a great thing these days. Andrei "Kolymchanin" thought of weapons as a former super weapon, but there was only one detail left - to summarize what we now know about advanced weapons and apply it to what was used in the not-too-distant "ancient world". .
And what we have, comrade kadykchanskiy?
1. Old bronze rifles or those that contain a lot of copper - for the same reason I dare to assume relatively viscous material.
2. Foldable composition of the weapon - on a large thread, a super heavy weapon and even with an incomprehensible recess in the back. We can say that such machines were collected and dismantled somewhere in specialized places. It's not on the battlefield to dismantle this Whopper.
The question is why is there so many dark elements in a relatively simple design? Everything fits together after viewing this material here:
We just have a huge and bulky prototype of this "new and advanced" weapon. The question is that a relatively soft cylinder in a straight line will provide the necessary density in the formation of charges. The principle of the "Roman candle" in fact:
The Roman candle is a long cardboard tube. There is a wick at the top of the tube. Inside the tube are alternating layers of slow-burning pyrotechnic composition, stars, and gunpowder. The candle burns from top to bottom and shoots up burning stars one after the other. The number of stars in a Roman candle can range from 4 to several dozen.
The tubular magazine, most likely with a multiple charge, was firmly curdled into such a cannon as a filler for the same incomprehensible narrow hole on the back of a collapsible structure, and the charges themselves may have been shipped separately as needed. By the way, this explains some differences in the diameter of the stone core and the diameter of the barrel of the weapon - with a close arrangement of several charges, most likely, a sealant was used.
But I will drive away the stingy tear of melancholy, which I will not be able to confirm for the next hundred years, and think about the technology of processing the stone of our architects.
Now the popular belief is that to saw and saw a mountain of super large stone pillars we need super large granite saws and it is unlikely that in the next millennium we will use the technology of the "gods" that our forerunners used to cut the walls of the Working on sarcophagi at low speed entered the stone with a thick drill:
But nothing like that! It turns out that with direct brains and hands with a vibrating tool, an equally difficult work with a small work area is possible. Grind? A stone cut at a right angle so that no marks from a circular saw are visible? It's that simple, the most important thing is to know the principle and a little money to buy a multi-tool:
And if you pay attention to artifacts that ambiguously state that there was still a concept for electricity, batteries and lamps in Egypt, then the existence of such a "renovator" is perfectly acceptable.
Yes, and so by the way - the ultrasonic generator connected to the scalpel makes the surgeon's work easier. Why not allow our ancestors to learn much more about the current state of sound generation and the use of technology based on vibration?
The question remains: what kind of greedy face has the entire progressive instrument seized from our eyes? Where are the technologies of the former architects stored? Who is responsible for making us consider, for the "gods", people who had simply been through everything in a technological solution that we were just beginning to touch? The moments of description of events easily fall out of mythology when we look at them from a technocratic perspective. I will continue to compare the "moments" of previous technological solutions and transfer them to the familiar channel.
I remember an excerpt from the Argonauts and their meeting with Stiffalia birds:
For many days and nights they sailed along the south coast of the Euxinous Pontus, circumventing various kingdoms of peoples previously unknown to them. Eventually they approached the island of Arethia. As they swam to the shore, a huge bird rose from the island. She flew over the ship and dropped her feathers on it - sharp as arrows; one of them fell on Olei's shoulder. In pain, Oileus dropped the oar from his hands; The Argonauts examined with astonishment the strange weapon that struck their companion. Neilah's neighbor took a feather from the wound, washed it, and bandaged it.
The thing is, there is, in my opinion, a slightly "corrected" story on the internet about this incident. At least I met an old book in which this meeting of the Argonauts with the "birds" was different. There were two attacking birds, charging through the sky with a distinctive sound resembling a continuous scream, before those birds screamed wildly and scared the Argonauts half to death, and the Argonauts themselves did not fight them, and besides, they could too did not shoot any of the "birds", just covered with signs and sailed at a safe distance from the island on which they lived. It is also interesting that these birds have been described as solid metal.
And so we have:
1. The Argonauts' ship approached the protected object, in this case it is an island.
2. The warning system worked (alarm);
3. Two fighter planes blew up, firing at the ship until it was removed from the zone of the sanctuary.
4. The weapons used by the defending side were similar to those described in the Mahabharatha.
It seems more plausible to depict exactly these birds like this:
In addition, they knew about supersonic aircraft (the most stable form in the air at such a speed) and for example in Peru (interestingly, Peru is only called Peru because the Peruvians called themselves that or simply the letter got lost over time ". N "? Perun sounds more believable):
And more than enough is said about fairy tales of all kinds of devices, for example the description of the "fairy tale about a big apple on a silver saucer":
A man lived with his wife, and they had three daughters: two - clothes, abdominal walls, and the third - rustic, and their sisters are called, and behind them and father and mother a fool. Everywhere they push the little fool, push everything into everything, force them to work; She does not say a word, she is ready for anything: both flying grass and prick a splinter, milk cows, feed ducks. Who asks something brings the whole fool: "Fool, go! Behind it all, fool, look! “A man rides to the fair with hay and promises to buy hotel gifts for his daughters. A daughter asks, "Buy me, father, kumachu for a summer dress"; another daughter asks: "Buy me a scarlet Chinese woman"; but the fool is silent and looks. Though a fool, yes a daughter; I'm sorry for my father - and she asked, "What do you want to buy, stupid?" The fool smiled and said, "Buy me, father, a silver platter and a big apple." - "What do you think?" - asked the sisters. "I'm going to start rolling an apple on a silver platter and saying the words the old woman taught me - for giving me the bells and whistles." A man promised and left.
Is it near, far, far, how long has he been at the fair, he has sold hay, bought the delicacies: a daughter of a scarlet Chinese man, the other a kumachu for a summer dress and a fool a silver plate and a large apple; returned home and shows. The sisters were happy to have the summer dresses sewn, and they laugh at the fool and wait to see what she will do with a silver platter and a big apple. A fool does not eat an apple, but sits in a corner - says: "Roll-roll, apple, on a silver platter, show me cities and fields, forests and seas and mountains, heights and sky beauty!" An apple rolls on a silver platter, and on a silver platter all cities are visible one after the other, ships on the seas and shelves in the fields, and mountains, heights and skies are beautiful; The sun rolls after the sun, the stars gather in a round dance - everything is so beautiful, wonderful - what to say in a fairy tale, do not write with a pen.
Once this device has not been presented by artists:
But what do we have in this case?
1. The flat surface of the screen (saucer);
2. A peculiar "style" in the form of an "apple", possibly a prototype of some kind of external "mouse";
3. Activator words that, like Apple's patented unlocking technology, only respond to certain commands (in Apple's case, this is just a unique character that a person writes on the touchscreen).
4. The ability to view current events in real time without space restrictions and bypassing physical barriers. That is, "without cameras" surveillance. So to speak - spatial technology that we may still be able to access.
In general, this "saucer with apple" looked more like this:
A merchant lived in a particular kingdom. For twelve years he lived in a marriage and only survived one daughter, Vasilisa the Beautiful. When the mother died, the girl was eight years old. As he was dying, the merchant called her daughter, took a doll from under the covers, gave it to her and said:
Listen up, Vasilisa! Remember and fulfill my last words. I am dying and with parental blessings I leave you with this doll. Always take care of it with yourself and don't show it to anyone. and if something happens to you, give her something to eat and ask her advice. She eats and tells you how to help the misfortune.
If you dig this "fairy tale", many moments will not only be interesting, but also super-technologically exciting:
1. A robot manikin is described, which in dialogue mode produced certain solutions in certain situations. Indeed, this is "super Wikipedia" in one device;
2. The "puppet" knowledge base was beyond a simple statement about the situation, it included predicting and understanding the situation;
3. The doll was working on organic matter, when it was activated, its eyes lit up. Why describe in such detail that the doll's eyes shone "like two candles"? Probably a direct indication of what principle this doll worked on;
4. The pupa did a fairly wide variety of jobs, such as simply cleaning the territory or carefully sorting out small seeds;
5. History mentions that "made of needles" and "made of knitting needles" was easy. At least it is enough to see what you are doing. This is something like biochemical lamps or devices powered by the energy of the action itself (which, in principle, isn't that fantastic when we've long been developing a clock that runs on human heat energy).
6. In the Yaga hut, the principle of using a “frightening hologram” is painted that protects the territory in the form of a black-red-white rider.
7. The skulls on the yagi fence are exactly like our modern object lighting according to the application principle. In addition to the simple lighting function, they also had their own logic (which had to be built into this device for a second and that was also done by someone), and that logic was based on evaluation measures and made independent decisions. How else could one explain that the "skull" followed the "fiery" gaze of those who essentially "framed" Vasilisa? Yes, and such a "fire" certainly had a wave character;
8. The principle of "intelligent home" implemented in Yagi's hut, he recognized voice commands directly and carried them out. A simple command to grind wheat was enough to call up three manipulators and process grain in some sort of built-in multiprocessor.
9. Yaga herself was in no hurry to pass on all the devices she had at her disposal to the people. That is, it was actually engaged in such "hoarding" of unique technologies like the "flying stupa" and so on.
What is noteworthy is that in this "fairy tale" homework is referred to as "lesson". That is, the craft is in fact comparable to what a person acquires in the continuation of his life, that is, with "lessons".
About Levashov Finist Yasniy Sokol is painted very well (here we have to pay tribute to him - he raised such a layer that many simply can not afford):]] \ u003e]] \ u003e
However, in theory this is not the limit for the technologies of the previous civilization. The question remains open - where are all these super-gadgets now and for what reason the super-civilization has totally suffered the collapse of not only technological but also spiritual. I don't think the fragmentation of Lelia or Fata did such damage - people would still survive who, like Yaga, would use whatever they could find. According to one of the survivors, there would also be tech geeks who restored the techno complex faster than the new humans bred on the planet.
It seems that the reason for such a "total shutdown" on the scale of civilization as a whole is really due to directionality and selectivity. Basically we are talking about biological warfare. But more on that later.
Despite the fact that the modern world is at one of the high points of technological development, scientists note that not all knowledge of the past has survived. Indeed, some inventions seem to have been lost, and some ancient technologies are incomprehensible to contemporaries.Below are five lost technologies that are still attracting the attention of scientists.
Modern concrete, a mixture of cement, water and aggregates such as sand or gravel, was invented in the early 18th century and is the most common building material in the modern world. However, the composition developed in the 18th century is far from the first type of concrete. Essentially, the Persians, Egyptians, Assyrians, and Romans used concrete. The latter added quicklime, crushed stone and water to the construction mixture - this composition gave Rome the Pantheon, the Colosseum, aqueducts and thermal baths.
Like much other knowledge of antiquity, this technology was lost with the advent of the Middle Ages - it is not surprising that this historical era is also known as the Dark Age. According to the popular version, which explains the fact that the recipe disappeared, it was a trade secret, and with the death of the few people who subscribed to it, it was forgotten.
It is noteworthy that the components that distinguish Roman cement from modern one are still unknown. Buildings made with Roman cement have stood for thousands of years regardless of the effects of the elements - the cement used in our time cannot boast of such durability. Some historians believe that the Romans added milk and blood to the building mixture - it is believed that the pores formed by this process allowed the composition to expand and contract under the influence of temperature changes without destroying it. Other substances crushed the cement, but no one can say exactly which ones.
Damascus steel, an incredibly strong type of metal, was widely used in the Middle East between AD 1100 and 1700. Basically, this type of steel became famous thanks to the swords and knives that were made from it. Blades forged from Damascus steel were famous for their strength and sharpness: it was believed that a sword made in Damascus could easily cut stones and other metals, including armor and weapons made from weaker alloys. Damascus steel is associated with patterned crucible steel from India and Sri Lanka. The high strength of blades made from such steel was explained by the manufacturing process, in which hard cementite was mixed with a slightly softer iron, which made the products both durable and flexible.
Damascus steel forging technology was lost around 1750. The exact reasons for this are unknown, but there are several versions that somehow explain these reasons. The most popular theory is that the ore needed to make damascus steel was running out and gunsmiths were forced to switch to alternative blade-making technologies.
According to another version, the blacksmiths themselves did not know the technology - they simply forged many blades and tested them for durability. It is believed that some of them happened to have acquired properties characteristic of Damascus. Be that as it may, even at the current stage of technological development, it is impossible to accurately restore the process of making damascus steel. However, despite the fact that blades with a similar pattern exist today to achieve the strength of damascus steel, modern masters cannot.
One of the most mysterious archaeological finds, the Antikythera Mechanism, was found by divers on a sunken old ship near the Greek island of Antikythera in the early 20th century. After examining the signs of a shipwreck, the scientists concluded that the ship dates back to the 1st or 2nd century BC. At the same time, the mechanism found was incredibly complex in its structure: it consisted of more than 30 gears, levers and other components.
In addition, a differential gear was used, which, as already assumed, was invented in the 16th century at the earliest. Obviously, the device was supposed to measure the position of the sun, moon and other celestial bodies. Some experts describe this mechanism as the original form of a mechanical watch, while others consider it the first known analog computer.
The accuracy with which the components of the mechanism were executed shows that this device was not unique. On the other hand, historical records of mechanisms whose structure resembles a find date back to the 14th century, which means that the technology has been lost for more than 1,400 years.
Greek fire, a combustible mixture used by the Byzantine Empire and other states for military purposes, is one of the most famous lost technologies. The Greek fire was something like the original form of napalm and continued to burn in water. The most famous use of this formidable weapon took place in the 11th century when Byzantium used fire against the Arabs and put them to flight.
First, Greek fire was poured into small vessels that were set on fire and, like the modern Molotov cocktail, thrown at the enemy. Later, installations were invented that were made of copper pipes with a siphon - these combat vehicles were used to set enemy ships on fire. In addition, there is information on manual installations, vaguely reminiscent of modern flamethrowers.
Of course, the armed forces of our time use flammable mixtures, which means that it cannot be said that the technology remains completely unknown. Napalm, on the other hand, was not developed until the 1940s, and the original composition of Greek fire was lost after the fall of the Byzantine Empire - however, effective technology remained lost for several centuries. It is still difficult to say exactly how the composition of the substance was lost. In addition, the scientists do not know how the mixture could be made.
According to the earliest version, Greek fire could contain a large dose of nitrate. However, this version was soon rejected because saltpetre does not burn in water and this property was ascribed to Greek fire. According to a more recent theory, the fuel substance was a kind of cocktail made up of petroleum products or crude oil plus quicklime, potassium nitrate and possibly sulfur.
Technology Apollo and Twins
It turns out that not all lost technologies come from ancient times - even the relatively recent advances in science and technology may remain incomprehensible to contemporaries. In the 50s, 60s and 70s of the 20th century, the Gemini and Apollo space programs led to the most remarkable achievements of mankind in the field of space travel. In particular, we are talking about NASA's greatest achievement, which is the Apollo 11 program and the landing of a man on the moon. The previous Gemini program from 1965 to 1966. gave scientists valuable knowledge about the mechanics of space flights.
Of course, the achievement of the Gemini and Apollo programs cannot be considered lost in the traditional sense of the word, since scientists still own Saturn 5 launch vehicles, as well as fragments of other spacecraft. On the other hand, owning mechanisms does not imply any knowledge of the technology. The fact is that due to the high pace of the "space race" the documentation was not done as well as would be desirable for modern NASA employees. In addition to the rush, the situation is exacerbated by the fact that private contractors were used to prepare the programs that worked on individual components of the ships and equipment.
After the programs were completed, private engineers went and took their drawings and diagrams with them. As a result, now that NASA is planning a new moon flight, large amounts of necessary information remain unavailable or in an utterly chaotic state. Essentially, all that remains of NASA under the present circumstances is reverse engineering, ie the analysis of existing ships.
In the modern world, technologies evolve very quickly and sometimes they surprise our imaginations. But what do we know about it? Old achievements?
Modern society owes a lot to ancient inventors.
All over the world, archaeologists are finding ancient artifacts, the purpose and manufacturing process of which are still a serious mystery to scientists.
We offer you a guide to the most amazing inventions of antiquity.
Technology of the past
1. Greek fire
Researchers have been trying to unravel the mystery of the Greek fire since the 19th century, and the debate has not subsided to this day. The prototype of the Greek fire supposedly appeared in 190 BC. when it was used to protect the island of Rhodes. Most historical sources attribute the invention of the Greek fire to the mechanic Kallinikos of Heliopolis. Greek fire remained Byzantium's terrible secret weapon for a long time. The composition was placed in a closed vessel, which was thrown at the enemy by a throwing machine.
The historian Theophanes wrote that ships with a mixture were catapulted into enemy ships during the siege of Constantinople. On contact with air, the liquid flashed and it was impossible to extinguish the fire: water only intensified its combustion. Originally, Greek fire was only used in naval battles.
2. Antikythera Mechanism
The mechanism was named in honor of Antikythera Island, in the area of which it was discovered in 1901. This strange mechanism contained 30 bronze gears in a wooden box with bronze dials with arrows on the front and back. The Antikythera Mechanism has been used as an astronomical, meteorological, educational, and cartographic device. Bronze dials with arrows, which, as it later turned out, were used to calculate the movement of celestial bodies.
The device was also able to determine the data of 42 astronomical phenomena as well as predict the color and size of a solar eclipse, which can be used to determine the strength of the winds at sea. The mechanism was set in motion by turning the handle (currently lost), which was connected to a large cogwheel via a crown wheel. It is considered to be the most complex of the ancient mechanical devices that date back to our time.
3. Zhang Hans seismoscope
In 132 AD, scientist and inventor Zhang Heng introduced the first seismoscope in China believed to be able to predict earthquakes with the accuracy of modern instruments. The seismoscope was cast in bronze and looked like a wine vessel with a domed lid. The circumference of this vessel housed the figures of eight dragons, which were aligned in eight spatial directions: four cardinal points and intermediate directions. Inside the copper vessel was a pendulum that was set in motion during an earthquake, even if it happened hundreds of kilometers away. The pendulum activated a system of levers that opened the mouth of one of the dragons. Each dragon had a bronze ball in its mouth. This ball rolled out and fell into the mouth of a frog under the kite, making a loud ringing sound.
According to reports, a copy of the 2005 seismoscope records earthquakes with the same accuracy as modern instruments. The first earthquake recorded by Heng's device occurred on December 13, 134 in Longxi City, with an epicenter in Tianshui, and had a magnitude of 7 points.
4. The iron column in Delhi
One of the most mysterious structures in the world is located on the territory of the old temple in Delhi: the famous 7.2 meter high iron column (Indra column), which has not rusted for 16 centuries! The iron content is 99.5%. The climate in India is very humid and this column should have literally rusted through for 1600 years. Who created the column and the secret of production is unknown. An inscription in Sanskrit indicates that the column was made under the reign of Emperor Chandragupta II (376-415).
Why doesn't the column rust? Why has the column not been corroded by rust for 16 hundred years, the very rust that destroys tons of iron around the world every year? Many agree that this pillar was not created by humans, but by representatives of extraterrestrial civilizations who once visited our planet. This is unlikely, of course, but the mystery has not yet been solved.
5. Phaistos disk
One of the amazing complex secrets of antiquity is the Phaistos disk, found by archaeologists, which has 259 mysterious symbols on it. The disc is made of a type of clay that cannot be found anywhere in Crete, and the writing on the disc is in no way associated with any of the local varieties. This is a small disc of well-baked clay, 15.8 to 16.5 cm in diameter and 1.6 to 2.1 cm thick, made without the help of a potter's wheel.
In 1908 an Italian archaeological expedition excavated the royal palace of the ancient city of Festa in the southern part of Crete, where Luigi Pernier discovered the disk. The exact purpose as well as the place and time of manufacture are reliably unknown. It is noticeable that the text is not printed with a stick, but with special prints.
6. Roman dodecahedron
More than a hundred dodecahedra have been found by archaeologists throughout the ancient Roman Empire. The sizes of the dodecahedra range from 4 to 11 cm and come mainly from the II-IV centuries of our time. These are small, hollow objects made of bronze or stone in the shape of a dodecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces, each of which has a round hole with different diameters in the middle. The tops of the figures are equipped with small balls.
There are other varieties of these bronze products: with rounded edges or with triangular faces. More than two centuries have passed since the discovery of the first dodecahedra, but researchers have not unraveled the possible functions of this mysterious object and have not come to an understanding of its origin and purpose.
7. Baghdad battery
The Mesopotamian artifact of the Parthian or Sassanian period is sometimes considered to be an ancient galvanic element that was created 2000 years before A. Volta was born. The find was discovered in 1936 by the Austrian archaeologist W. Köning in the suburbs of Baghdad. This is an oval pitcher made of light yellow clay 13 cm high with a rolled copper sheet, an iron core and several pieces of bitumen inside. Bitumen sealed the top and bottom of the copper cylinder. Such a sealed connection suggests that the jug once contained liquid.
The same hypothesis is confirmed by traces of corrosion on copper, which occurred as a result of the action of acid, probably vinegar or wine. Artifacts similar to the Baghdad Bank have also been found near the cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon. Scientists have not yet been able to answer exactly what these ships were intended for.
8. Roman concrete
Surprisingly, the old cement recipe, developed more than 2000 years ago, turned out to be better than modern. The concept of "concrete" did not exist in ancient Rome. This term appeared in France in the 18th century. They called cast masonry with stone aggregate the Greek word "Empleton". The use of concrete in the ancient Roman state began towards the end of the 4th century. BC e. and lasted about 700 years. The Romans were not inventors of concrete, they adopted it from the Etruscans, Greeks and other peoples. However, the widespread use, or as they say today - the introduction, all of this was preserved in ancient Rome.
Scientists have found that the Romans used much less lime in their cement recipe and produced cement at 900 degrees Celsius. The bottom line is that Roman builders made cement by mixing lime and volcanic rock. A special cement was used for offshore structures: a mixture of lime and volcanic ash. And many Roman ports have been in excellent condition for more than 2000 years, despite the effects of waves and chemical influences from seawater.
9. Disk Sabu
During the excavation of Mastaba Sabu (3100-3000 BC) in Saqqara, an Egyptologist Walter Brian Emerai discovered a disk divided into three parts in 1936. Scientists still cannot explain the origin of the mysterious disk. According to one version, a prehistoric artifact may be part of an unknown mechanism created by an ancient highly developed civilization. The disc is a round stone slab with several unusual blades that were seventy centimeters in diameter. In the middle you can see an unusual sleeve.
It is made of very fragile material and requires a lot of skill, which even today is only available in units.Masters of ancient Egyptian civilization usually used a chisel to work on stone, but creating such a complex shape from brittle material required sophisticated technology. Many researchers are certain: a stone disk is nothing more than a propeller with hydraulic ribs.
10. Lens from Nimrud
The lens was found in 1853 by British archaeologist Austin Henry Layard during excavations in Nimrud, one of the ancient capitals of Assyria. The Nimrud lens (its middle name is the Layard lens) is said to have been manufactured between the 750 and 710. BC e. made of natural rock crystal and has a slightly oval shape. There is no consensus in the scientific community as to the original purpose of the lens.
According to one version, the lens served as a magnifying glass. Famed Italian professor Giovanni Pettinato suggested his version that the lens was used by the ancient Assyrians as part of a telescope, and this supposedly explains how the Assyrians knew so much about astronomy. There are alternative hypotheses - for example, this crystal disc could serve as a piece of jewelry or a ritual object.
Our world is full of secrets that challenge science. The more scientists find artifacts from the past, the more questions they have. Perhaps the ancient world was a lot more complicated than we used to think.
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